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pointers to backdoor utilities such as NetBus (see 4) Here, we check to see what applications start up with Windows:
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C:\>reg query \\102191207\HKLM\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\ Windows\CurrentVersion\Run ! REGEXE VERSION 30 HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\ Windows\CurrentVersion\Run VMware Tools REG_SZ C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools\VMwareTrayexe VMware User Process REG_SZ C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools\VMwareUserexe Adobe Reader Speed Launcher REG_SZ "C:\Program Files\Adobe\Reader 80\Reader\Reader_slexe" SunJavaUpdateSched REG_SZ "C:\Program Files\Java\jre160_03\bin\juschedexe" HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\ Windows\CurrentVersion\Run\OptionalComponents
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DumpSec produces much nicer output but basically achieves the same thing, as shown in Figure 3-5 The Dump Services report will enumerate every Win32 service and kernel driver on the remote system, whether running or not (again, assuming proper access permissions) This could provide a wealth of potential targets for attackers to choose from when planning an exploit Remember that a null session is required for this activity Enumerating Trusted Domains Remember the nltest tool, which we discussed earlier in the context of NetBIOS Name Service Enumeration Once a null session is set up to one of the machines in the enumerated domain, the nltest /server:<server_name> and /trusted_domains syntax can be used to learn about further Windows domains related to the first It s amazing how much more powerful these simple tools become when a null session is available Enumerating Users At this point, giving up share information probably seems pretty bad, but not the end of the world at least attackers haven t been able to get at user account information, right Wrong Unfortunately, many Windows machines cough up user information over null sessions just about as easily as they reveal shares
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Figure 3-5 DumpSec enumerates all services and drives running on a remote system
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One of the most powerful tools for mining a null session for user information is, once again, DumpSec It can pull a list of users, groups, and the NT system s policies and user rights In the next example, we use DumpSec from the command line to generate a file containing user information from the remote computer (remember that DumpSec requires a null session with the target computer to operate):
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C:\>dumpsec /computer=\\19216820233 /rpt=usersonly /saveas=tsv /outfi le=c:\temp\userstxt C:\>cat c:\temp\userstxt 7/15/08 10:07 AM - Somarsoft DumpSec - \\19216820233 UserName FullName Comment Barzini Enrico Barzini Rival mob chieftain godfather Vito Corleone Capo Godzilla Administrator Built-in account for administering the domain Guest Built-in account for guest access lucca Lucca Brazzi Hit man mike Michael Corleone Son of Godfather
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Using the DumpSec GUI, you can include many more information fields in the report, but the format just shown usually ferrets out troublemakers For example, we once came across a server that stored the password for the renamed Administrator account in the Comments field! Two other extremely powerful Windows enumeration tools are sid2user and user2sid by Evgenii Rudnyi (see http://evgeniirudnyiru/soft/sid/sidtxt) These are command-line tools that look up NT Family SIDs from username input, and vice versa SID is the security identifier, a variable-length numeric value issued to an NT Family system at installation For a good explanation of the structure and function of SIDs, read the excellent article at http://enwikipediaorg/wiki/Security_Identifier Once a domain s SID has been learned through user2sid, intruders can use known SID numbers to enumerate the corresponding usernames Here s an example:
C:\>user2sid \\19216820233 "domain users" S-1-5-21-8915387-1645822062-1819828000-513 Number of subauthorities is 5 Domain is ACME Length of SID in memory is 28 bytes Type of SID is SidTypeGroup
This tells us the SID for the machine the string of numbers beginning with S-1, separated by hyphens The numeric string following the last hyphen is called the relative identifier (RID), and it is predefined for built-in Windows users and groups such as Administrator and Guest For example, the Administrator user s RID is always 500, and the Guest user s is 501 Armed with this tidbit, a hacker can use sid2user and the known SID string appended with an RID of 500 to find the name of the administrator s account (even if it has been renamed) Here s an example:
C:\>sid2user \\192168233 5 21 8915387 1645822062 18198280005 500 Name is godzilla Domain is ACME Type of SID is SidTypeUser
Note that S-1 and the hyphens are omitted Another interesting factoid is that the first account created on any NT-based local system or domain is assigned an RID of 1000, and each subsequent object gets the next sequential number after that (1001, 1002, 1003, and so on RIDs are not reused on the current installation) Therefore, once the SID is known, a hacker can basically enumerate every user and group on an NT Family system, past and present sid2user/user2sid will even work if RestrictAnonymous is set to 1 (defined shortly), as long as port 139 or 445 is accessible
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