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We can see the machine account password for the domain and two SQL service account related passwords among the LSA Secrets for this system It doesn t take much
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imagination to discover that large Windows networks can be toppled quickly through this kind of password enumeration Starting in Windows XP, Microsoft moved some things around and rendered lsadump2 inoperable when run as anything but the SYSTEM account Modifications to the lsadump2 source code have been posted that get around this issue The all-purpose Windows hacking tool Cain also has a built-in LSA Secrets extractor that bypasses these issues when run as an administrative account Cain also has a number of other cached password extractors that work against a local machine if run under administrative privileges Figure 4-8 shows Cain extracting the LSA Secrets from a Windows XP Service Pack 2 system and also illustrates the other repositories from which Cain can extract passwords, including Protected Storage, Internet Explorer 7, wireless networking, Windows Mail, dial-up connections, edit boxes, SQL Enterprise Manger, and Credential Manager Windows also caches the credentials of users who have previously logged in to a domain By default, the last ten logons are retained in this fashion Utilizing these credentials is not as straightforward as the cleartext extraction provided by LSADump, however, since the passwords are stored in hashed form and further encrypted with a machine-specific key The encrypted cached hashes (try saying that ten times fast!) are
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Figure 4-8 Cain s password cache decoding tools work against the local system when run with
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stored under the Registry key HKLM\SECURITY\CACHE\NL$n, where n represents a numeric value from 1 to 10 corresponding to the last ten cached logons Of course, no secret is safe to Administrator- or SYSTEM-equivalent privileges Arnaud Pilon s CacheDump tool (see wwwcr0net:8040/misc/cachedumphtml) automates the extraction of the previous logon cache hashes Cain also has a built-in logon cachedumping capability under the Cracking tool, called MS-Cache Hashes The hashes must, of course, be subsequently cracked to reveal the cleartext passwords (updated tools for performing pass the hash, or directly reusing the hashed password as a credential rather than decrypting it, have not been published for some time) Any of the Windows password-cracking tools we ve discussed in this chapter can perform this task One other tool we haven t mentioned yet, cachebf, will directly crack output from CacheDump You can find cachebf at http://wwwtoolcryptorg/tools/cachebf/indexhtml As you might imagine, these credentials can be quite useful to attackers we ve had our eyes opened more than once at what lies in the logon caches of even the most nondescript corporate desktop PC Who wants to be Domain Admin today
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Unfortunately, Microsoft does not find the revelation of this data that critical, stating that Administrator access to such information is possible by design in Microsoft KB Article ID Q184017, which describes the availability of an initial LSA hotfix This fix further encrypts the storage of service account passwords, cached domain logons, and workstation passwords using SYSKEY-style encryption Of course, lsadump2 simply circumvents it using DLL injection Therefore, the best defense against lsadump2 and similar cache-dumping tools is to avoid getting Admin-ed in the first place By enforcing sensible policies about who gains administrative access to systems in your organization, you can rest easier It is also wise to be very careful about the use of service accounts and domain trusts At all costs, avoid using highly privileged domain accounts to start services on local machines! There is a specific configuration setting that can help mitigate domain logon cache dumping attacks: change the Registry key HKLM\ Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\ CurrentVersion\Winlogon to an appropriate value (the default is 10; see http://support microsoftcom/ kbid=172931) This setting is also accessible from Security Policy under Interactive logon: number of previous logons to cache (in case domain controller is not available) Beware that making this setting zero (the most secure) will prevent mobile users from logging on when a domain controller is not accessible A more sensible value might be 1, which does leave you vulnerable but not to the same extent as the Windows default values (10 previous logons under Vista and 25 under Server 2008!)
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