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Figure 1-9 We start our domain lookup at http://whoisianaorg
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shouldn t have too much trouble finding registrant details for any (public) domain name on the planet Remember, some domains like gov and mil may not be accessible to the public via WHOIS To be thorough, we could have done the same searches via the command-line WHOIS client with the following three commands:
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[bash]$ whois com h whoisianaorg [bash]$ whois keyholecom h whoisverisign-grscom [bash]$ whois keyholecom h whoisomniscom
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There are also several websites that attempt to automate this process with varying degrees of success: http://wwwallwhoiscomhttp://wwwuwhoiscom http://wwwinternicnet/whoishtml
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Figure 1-10 We nd the registrant details for keyholecom at the appropriate registrar s site
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Last but not least, there are several GUIs available that will also assist you in your searches: SamSpade SuperScan http://wwwsamspadeorg http://wwwfoundstonecom http://wwwnwpswcom
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Once you ve homed in on the correct WHOIS server for your target, you may be able to perform other searches if the registrar allows it You may be able to find all the domains that a particular DNS server hosts, for instance, or any domain name that contains a certain string These types of searches are rapidly being disallowed by most WHOIS servers, but it is still worth a look to see what the registrar permits It may be just what you re after
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1:
Footprinting
IP-Related Searches
That pretty well takes care of the domain-related searches, but what about IP-related registrations As explained earlier, IP-related issues are handled by the various RIRs under ICANN s ASO Let s see how we go about querying this information The WHOIS server at ICANN (IANA) does not currently act as an authoritative registry for all the RIRs as it does for the TLDs, but each RIR does know which IP ranges it manages This allows us to simply pick any one of them to start our search If we pick the wrong one, it will tell us which one we need to go to Let s say that while perusing your security logs (as I m sure you do religiously, right ), you run across an interesting entry with a source IP of 61002 You start by entering this IP into the WHOIS search at http://wwwarinnet (Figure 1-11), which tells you that this range of IPs is actually managed by APNIC You then go to APNIC s site at
Figure 1-11 ARIN tells you which RIR you need to search
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Figure 1-12 It turns out that the IP address is owned by India s National Internet Backbone
http://wwwapnicnet to continue your search (Figure 1-12) Here you find out that this IP address is actually managed by the National Internet Backbone of India This process can be followed to trace back any IP address in the world to its owner, or at least to a point of contact that may be willing to provide the remaining details As with anything else, cooperation is almost completely voluntary and will vary as you deal with different companies and different governments Always keep in mind that there are many ways for a hacker to masquerade their true IP In today s cyberworld, it s more likely to be an illegitimate IP address than a real one So the IP that shows up in your logs may be what we refer to as a laundered IP address almost untraceable We can also find out IP ranges and BGP autonomous system numbers that an organization owns by searching the RIR WHOIS servers for the organization s literal name For example, if we search for Google at http://wwwarinnet, we see the IP ranges that Google owns under its name as well as its AS number, AS15169 (Figure 1-13)
1:
Footprinting
Figure 1-13 Here we see the IP ranges and BGP AS number that Google owns under its name
It might be useful to explain why finding BGP data would be useful IP address information is probably pretty obvious BGP info is probably not obvious Table 1-2 shows a variety of available tools for WHOIS lookups The administrative contact is an important piece of information because it may tell you the name of the person responsible for the Internet connection or firewall Our query also returns voice and fax numbers This information is an enormous help when you re performing a dial-in penetration review Just fire up the war-dialers in the noted range, and you re off to a good start in identifying potential modem numbers In addition, an intruder will often pose as the administrative contact using social engineering on unsuspecting users in an organization An attacker will send spoofed e-mail messages posing as the administrative contact to a gullible user It is amazing how many users will change their passwords to whatever you like, as long as it looks like the request is being sent from a trusted technical support person
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