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Define Embedded Style Sheets
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The next step up from inline styles is the use of embedded style sheets An embedded style sheet is one defined using the HTML <style> tag inside the header section of the document Styles defined in this manner are available to the entire web page, so it is entirely possible to define only one or two style definitions for a large and complex document A style sheet is made up of one or more rules A rule is a single definition for a style, in the following format:
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selector { attribute1 : value; attribute2 : value; attributeN : value; }
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For example, in the previous section we had a style sheet with three rules One of the rules was defined with the following code:
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#summary { font: 12pt Arial; color: #993333; margin-left: 20pt; }
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The rule has a selector (#summary) and defines values for three attributes (font, color, and margin-left) The selector determines which HTML tags have their attributes set to the specified values By the way, the rule does not have to be spaced over several lines as I have been doing You can place the rule all on one line, or break it up over several more lines to improve readability, if you wish The following table shows how selectors work in CSS
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Selector h1 #heading blue HTML Code Affected Affects all <h1> tags in the document Affects the tag with an id attribute set to heading Affects all tags with a class attribute set to blue
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CHAPTER 12: Perform Simple Animation
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Selector p#heading pblue h1, h2, h3 pb ul ul li div red
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HTML Code Affected Affects all <p> tags in the document with an id attribute set to heading Affects all <p> tags in the document with a class attribute set to blue Affects all <h1>, <h2>, and <h3> tags in the document Affects all <p> tags that are contained inside <p> tags; <b> tags not inside <p> tags are not affected Affects all <li> tags that are inside at least two <ul> tags Affects all tags with a class attribute set to red that are also inside a div attribute
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As you can see, there are ways to set the style for the entire document all at once and ways to set the style of very specific elements within the document You can ultimately create some very complex and comprehensive style sheets using sophisticated selectors
Import External Styles
There are two ways to import a style sheet from an external file into an HTML document:
The HTML <link> element The style sheet @import command
This means that you can create a single style sheet file that can be applied to all the pages on a web site And with a few simple keystrokes in a text editor, you can radically change the style of all the pages on your site at once To use the <link> element, place the following HTML code in the <head> section of your web page:
<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="http://wwwexamplecom/mystylecss">
The preceding code will cause the style sheet which is located at http://wwwexamplecom/ mystylecss to be imported into the web page The file extension css is often used for style sheets To import the same style sheet using the @import command, we actually need to add a <style> section to the document header
<style type="text/css"> @import url(http://wwwexamplecom/mystylecss); </style>
All three types of style sheets (inline, embedded, and external) can be combined in a single document If styles conflict, the inline styles have precedence, followed by the embedded styles, and lastly the external styles
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Use Basic Style Attributes
As mentioned in the Define Embedded Style Sheets section, a style sheet is made up one or more of rules, and rules are made up of a selector plus one or more attributes In this section, we will look at the different types of attributes that can be used to set styles There are literally dozens of attributes defined in the official CSS 1 specification so many that I won t even attempt to cover them all in this book For more information on the available CSS attributes, I suggest the following two excellent sources:
The official W3C CSS 1 specification can be found at http://wwww3org/TR/REC-CSS1 The Microsoft MSDN web site has an excellent reference guide at
http://msdnmicrosoftcom/workshop/author/css/reference/css_ref_entryasp The MSDN reference guide is particularly well organized; CSS attributes are crossreferenced with their related HTML elements In fact, I believe this web site to be the most complete web programming reference available on the Internet not just for CSS, but for all web-related programming topics Table 12-1 describes some of the most frequently used CSS attributes Several of the attributes listed in Table 12-1 are compound attributes; that is, they allow you to set many properties of an element at once For instance, the font attribute allows you to set up to 14 font-related properties in one string:
BODY { font: italic normal bold 12pt Arial; }
This convenient shortcut is equivalent to the following code:
BODY { font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; font-weight: bold; font-size: 12pt; font-family: Arial; }
So as you can see, compound attributes save time and effort but add additional complexity, in that they are more difficult to construct
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