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11 Introduction The emergence of digital electronics has had a tremendous impact on industrial societies throughout the world In the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry, the development of digital electronics has brought an end to the use of many mechanical devices; typical of this is the diminished use of mechanical controls for HVAC air and water systems Today s digital control systems, with built-in intelligence, more accurately evaluate water and system conditions and adjust pump operation to meet the desired water flow and pressure conditions Drafting boards and drafting machines have all but disappeared from the design rooms of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning engineers and have been replaced by computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems Tedious manual calculations are being done more quickly and accurately by computer programs developed for specific design applications All this has left more time for creative engineering on the part of designers to the benefit of the client 12 Computer-Aided Calculation of HVAC Loads and Pipe Friction The entire design process for today s water systems, from initial design to final commissioning, has been simplified and improved as a result of the new, sophisticated computer programs One of the most capable programs for sizing and analyzing flow in fluid systems is the piping systems analysis program developed by APEC, Inc (Automated Procedures for Engineering Consultants), headquartered in Dayton,
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Digital Electronics and HVAC Pumps 4 The Basic Tools
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Ohio APEC, a nonprofit, worldwide association of consulting engineers and in-house design group, is dedicated to improving quality and productivity in the design of HVAC air and water systems through the development and application of advanced computer software The APEC PSA-1 program accurately calculates the friction losses and sizes of pipes as well as simulating flow under different operating conditions in either new or existing piping systems Analyzing the fluid flow in systems with diversified loads, multiple pumps, and chillers or boilers is essential if engineers are to truly understand the real operating conditions of large HVAC water systems This understanding can only be achieved through the use of a computer program capable of such thorough analysis
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121 Typical input for APEC piping system analysis program
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The following is representative system data into an APEC s computer program for calculating pipe sizing, friction, and flow analysis, and typical output
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Master Data files
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Pipe, fitting, and valve files
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Material Actual ID for nominal Steel schedule friction loss copper type (M,L) other
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Standard pipe pre-entered or custom Cost estimation optional Insulation file
Type
K value Thickness Cost estimation optional Fluids Provisions for all fluid types with:
Density Viscosity System data
Pipe environment
Temperature Specific heat
Required for heat/loss gain
Outside air temperature Burial depth
Space temperature Soil conductivity
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Digital Electronics and HVAC Pumps Digital Electronics and HVAC Pumps 5
Program options
System sizing Flow simulation Cost estimate
Flow simulation options-typical entries
Maximum iterations Intermediate results Temperature tolerance for convergence Relaxation parameters Fill pressure
Pump data
30 Every 3 iterations 050 050 F 46 ft of head (or H2O)
Variable or constant speed Points for pump curves
Terminal data (coils, etc)
Fluid flow Pressure drop Coil cfm (ft3/min) Inlet air temperature Leaving air set point
Valve data
Valve coefficient Trial setting Valve control
122 Typical output for APEC piping system analysis program
Table 11 includes samples of output headings, with one line of output for only three output forms available The output also has forms that mirror the input, so the designer has a complete record of the entire analysis This program is now being expanded to include many additional piping features and to accommodate contemporary computer practices such as Windows, to speed the development and manipulation of project data
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Digital Electronics and HVAC Pumps 6 The Basic Tools
TABLE 11
Sample Output Headings
Pressure-drop analysis* Node From 5 To 6 Pipe Diameter 250 Length, ft 225 Pipe PD 075 Terminal Flow 70 PD 22 CV PD 310 Fitting Special Total PD PD PD 021 5396
System estimate Material Item 1 Size 200 Description Schedule 40 Quantity 1150 Unit LF Unit 242 Cost 278 Labor Unit 42 Cost 4830 Total Cost 5108
Final simulation results Link Start 4 End 5 Pipe diameter 25 Flow (gpm) Input 70 Actual 753 Pressure head (ft) At start 344 Node (7937) Temperature, F 160
*Chiller or boiler pressure drop not included Labor and cost units are entered by user as master data for given localities Cost estimates are not intended to give accurate costs for bidding purposes
13 Hydraulic-Gradient Diagrams The hydraulic-gradient diagram provides a visual description of the changes in total pressure in a water system To date, these diagrams have been drawn manually; the actual drawing of the hydraulicgradient diagram is now being evaluated for conversion to software; when this is completed, the diagram will appear automatically on the computer screen after the piping friction calculations are completed The hydraulic-gradient diagram has proved to be an invaluable tool in the development of a water system It will appear throughout this book for various types of water systems Its generation will be explained in Chap 3 Clarification should be made between an energy gradient and the hydraulic gradient of a water system The energy gradient includes the velocity head V 2/2 g, of the water system, while the hydraulic gradient includes only the static and pressure heads Velocity head is usually a number less than 5 ft and is not used to move water through pipe, as are static and pressure heads Using the energy gradient with the velocity head increases the calculations for developing these diagrams; therefore, the hydraulic gradient is used instead
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