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Figure 111 Cooling tower piping
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Open Cooling Tower Pumps Open Cooling Tower Pumps 331
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the cooling tower sump is normally adequate to keep rocks and other large debris out of the pump A suction strainer on a cooling tower pump hazards a chance that the strainer could be obliterated with algae; the pump could then overheat and be destroyed before it could be stopped Installing the strainer on the pump discharge protects the pump If the strainer becomes clogged, the pump will be protected with only a small flow through the strainer The equipment being supplied by the cooling tower pump will indicate flow problems long before the strainer is totally clogged 114 Location of Cooling Tower Pumps Cooling tower pumping is not severe duty for centrifugal pumps, but applying pumps to cooling towers is much more detailed than most HVAC pump installations This is caused by the cooling tower loops being open-type water systems with the possibility of oxygen, airborne dirt, and chemicals existing in the water Every cooling tower installation should be checked to ensure that adequate net positive suction head (NPSH) available exists for the pumps selected for that cooling tower 6 provides information on NPSH and how to calculate the available NPSH Pumps should not be selected for cooling tower duty without knowing the NPSH required by them As the NPSH available equation (Eq 68) indicates, the friction in the suction pipe to end-suction and double-suction pumps should be kept low The pumps should be located as near as possible to the cooling towers; the suction pipe should contain a minimum of pipe fittings such as elbows (Fig 112a) If there are doorways between the cooling tower and a chiller, the pump should be located near the cooling tower to avoid a loop in the suction piping (Fig 112b) If the cooling tower location is such that it is difficult to provide adequate suction conditions for end-suction or double-suction pumps, an alternate is the use of turbine-type pumps located in the cooling tower sump The cooling tower should not be planned for installation at a specific point with the hope that there is a way to pump the water from it Pumping the cooling tower should be settled before final location is made for the tower Cooling tower pumps should not necessarily be located on the supply side of chiller condensers On high-rise buildings where there is adequate NPSH available under all load conditions, the condenser pumps can be located on the discharge of the condenser, as shown in Fig 113a This reduces the pressure on the condenser water boxes and may eliminate the cost of higher-pressure construction The maximum
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Figure 112 Cooling tower supply piping arrangement
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Figure 113 Cooling tower piping for high-rise buildings 333
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Open Cooling Tower Pumps 334 Pumps for Open HVAC Cooling Systems
static pressure must be calculated to determine the working pressure for these water boxes
1141 Remote cooling tower sumps
Many of the problems involved in operating cooling towers in cold weather and with chiller condensers are solved through the use of special cooling tower sumps These sumps can be located indoors to prevent freezing, as shown in Fig 113b When the sump is located remotely from the tower, as in this figure, the added height Z must be included in the pump total dynamic head This indoor sump must have a drain-down capacity to handle the water of the system when the pump is stopped Most tower manufacturers provide the draindown volume in gallons for their towers; to this must be added any pipe capacity that is drained at the same time A sump that solves many application problems is the hot-well, coldwell type of Fig 114a This sump offers freezing protection and also separates the cooling tower loop from the process or chiller loop This provides maximum flexibility for modulating the heat load that is sent to the cooling tower The cooling tower receives the correct water flow regardless of the load on the equipment being cooled A hot-well pump circulates the cooling tower, while the process or condenser pump circulates the process equipment or the condenser on the chiller In warm climates where there is no concern about freezing, the primarysecondary circuiting that is described later in this chapter eliminates the need for this sump The concrete sump and turbine pump of Fig 114b is the typical installation for large cooling towers A battery of turbine pumps operating in parallel can develop an efficient flow program with a substantial load range Large cooling towers require careful evaluation of the cooling tower sump The intake of water from the sump to the pumps requires correct design to avoid suction problems for the pumps The Hydraulic Institute has summarized the entire subject of intake design in their ANSI/HI 98-1998 American National Standard on Pump Intake Design This document should be considered before any serious design is initiated for pump intakes They have introduced a new structure known as a trench-type intake that may simplify sump design for large cooling towers, Fig 115 It is urged that a designer of large cooling tower installations should have a copy of the above standard to assist in the design of any type sump, whether rectangular, circular, or trench configuration The exit of water from cooling tower sumps should be designed carefully to avoid vortexing Figure 616 should be reviewed to ensure
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