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Chillers and Their Pumps Chillers and Their Pumps 381
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(4) the cooling tower fan motors or the air-cooled condenser motors The secondary or distribution pumps are not included because they are considered to be part of the chilled water system and figure in the overall chilled water system efficiency The increase in energy cost has fueled interest in actual total energy consumptions of central chilled water plants The ASHRAE is currently developing a guideline for determining the actual kilowatts per ton for electric motor driven chiller plants The committee preparing this guideline is identified as GPC22 Figure 141 describes the instrumentation required for developing kilowatts per ton It should be noted that the chilled water pumps are not included in this calculation The chilled water pumps on most systems are part of the energy required to distribute the water, not part of the generation process In many cases, the economics of chiller plant operation require that the energy for the chilled water pumps be part of the overall kilowatts per ton There is no difficulty with this as long as it is noted that this is the procedure used; the kilowatts per ton for such a plant will, obviously, be higher than a plant where the chilled water pump energy is not included The most important use of kilowatts per ton should be by the plant operators who can track the actual kilowatts per ton and be able to find the source for unplanned increases in the kilowatts per ton for their plant It is hoped that several years of generating actual kilowatts per ton data will result in benchmark information that can be used for comparing one chiller plant s kilowatts per ton with a comparable plant of similar equipment and size Ultimately, we should be able to predict an overall plant kilowatts per ton once the parameters of that plant have been developed Eventually, design criteria may
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Figure 141 Kilowatts per ton instrumentation
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Chillers and Their Pumps 382 Pumps for Closed HVAC Cooling Systems
specify a maximum allowable kilowatts per ton at design load and at certain part-load conditions The load in tons of cooling on the system is computed by the formula Tons of cooling 500 Q (T2 T1) 12,000 Q (T2 T1) 24 where T2 T1 Q system return water temperature, F system supply water temperature, F system flow, gal/min (145)
All the data required to compute the kilowatts per ton for a central chilled water plant are easily available in analog signals for digital computers to do the calculations shown in the previous paragraph The significant fact about central plant kilowatts per ton figures is their cost-effectiveness for the medium- to large-sized chiller plants The instrumentation cost is usually less than $10,000 at current pricing unless the flowmeter or a Btu meter is a required addition An accurate flowmeter is recommended, with an accuracy of 1 percent of flow rate through a range of 1 to 15 ft/s water velocity Kilowatts per ton should be displayed prominently in the equipment room to permit operators to observe the effect on the overall energy consumption when another chiller, pump, or cooling tower is put into service Reiterating, with overall kilowatts per ton, the effect of pumps and cooling towers on central plant efficiency should be included in the plant operating displays 144 Circuiting Chilled Water to Chillers There are fundamentals for the circuiting of chillers that should not be violated in order to achieve maximum efficiency Some of these are 1 Design the piping so that energy consumption of chillers is not increased 2 Arrange the piping so that all chillers receive the same return water temperature 3 Ensure that the required minimum water flow through the evaporators is maintained 4 Always install the chillers in accordance with the recommendation of their manufacturers
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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