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Piping System Friction Piping System Friction 37
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TABLE 31
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Maximum Water Capacities of Steel Pipe (in gal/min) Maximum flow, gal/min 00,045 00,075 00,130 00,260 00,800 01,600 03,000 04,700 06,000 08,000 10,000 12,000 18,000 30,000 45,000 60,000 Hydraulic radius, in 05 06 08 10 15 20 25 30 33 38 42 45 57 73 90 105
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Size, in 02 021 2 03 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42
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Schedule 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 20 36-in ID 42-in ID
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Velocity, ft/s 43 50 56 66 89 103 122 134 142 145 143 138 144 146 141 139
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Loss, ft/100 ft 385 410 392 403 403 382 406 398 395 349 297 244 210 161 118 095
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TABLE 32
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Total Owning Cost of Piping Amortized first cost per year $12,000 14,000 17,000 Annual operating cost $16,000 12,000 10,000 Total annual owning cost $28,000 26,000 27,000
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Pipe size, in 12 14 16
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Obviously, the total owning costs of the piping system should be generated for each application The derivation of these data is beyond the scope of this book, but there are programs available for computing these costs in detail
311 Maximum capacities and velocities of actual piping
Table 32 is a general recommendation to designers for the maximum capacity and pipe velocity for standard sizes of steel pipe One basis for this information comes from ASHRAE Design Study RP-450, which researched the literature available on pipe velocities and resulting friction This research paper is an excellent document for reviewing the history of and literature on pipe friction and maximum allowable water velocities It is obvious that Table 32 is but a preliminary road map for the knowledgeable piping designer With the present information available, the pipe designer must rely on actual, personal experience
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Piping System Friction 38 The Basic Tools
312 Pipe velocity is the designer s responsibility
It is also very clear from Table 32 that sizing all pipe, particularly large pipe in the range from 20 to 42 in in diameter, requires a detailed analysis of the entire piping system to achieve the economical size for a particular installation It cannot be based on a rule that limits pipe velocity Reiterating, it is the designer s responsibility to determine pipe size and maximum velocity There are so many judgment calls in the final selection of pipe diameter that it is not a simple process For a hypothetical example, if you have 12,000 gal/min flowing in a chiller header in a central energy plant, you could use 20-in-diameter steel pipe if the header is only 100 ft long This would reduce the cost of the piping and tees where the chillers are connected On the other hand, if a chilled water supply main runs for 1000 ft to a group of buildings, you might use 24-in-diameter pipe to reduce the overall friction loss The cost of piping accessories and the length of pipe involved affect the decision on the final pipe size These are the evaluations that a good pipe designer must make The physical pressure that the pipe must operate under and the possibilities of corrosion as well as availability determine the schedule or wall thickness of steel pipe The designer should make the velocity calculation and, therefore, the friction calculations based on the actual inside diameter of the pipe to be used in the water system The designer should check the actual project conditions to ensure that the pipe inside diameter to be used for each pipe size is available at the job site at the time of construction 32 Pipe and Fitting Specifications Elements of an HVAC water system are connected together by means of piping In most cases, this piping is steel, although various types of plastic piping are now appearing in this industry Most steel piping used in the HVAC industry for low-temperature applications conforms to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specifications A53 or A120 Higher-temperature applications such as high-pressure steam and high-temperature water may require seamless piping per ASTM A106; local and ASME codes should be checked for detailed pipe, flange, bolting, and fitting specifications for particular applications such as high-temperature water and highpressure steam Steel fittings follow American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Specification B165, whereas threaded cast iron fittings comply with ANSI Specification B164 and flanged cast iron fittings with ANSI B161
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