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Pump no1 P1 System no1 P2
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Variable-speed pumps in series (From Patterson Pump Company HVAC Pumps and Systems Manual, 2004)
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Chilled Water Distribution Systems Chilled Water Distribution Systems 425
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This review of secondary pumps demonstrates how important a pressure-gradient analysis of an existing campus-type chilled water system is in the evaluation these complex systems No major changes should be made in such an installation without this analysis It will demonstrate the value of converting secondary pumps from constant to variable speed and how to zone a secondary system to achieve maximum efficiency in distributing chilled water 154 Primary-Secondary-Tertiary Pumping Systems In the days of constant-volume chilled water systems, the primarysecondary-tertiary system was used to reduce the pump pressures throughout the system (Fig 159a) By splitting the system head between the secondary and tertiary pumps, no part of the system was subjected to excessive pressure in properly designed installations There is seldom any reason for using this type of pumping with today s variable-volume chilled water systems These systems must not be confused with primary-secondary with booster systems On the primary-secondary-tertiary system, all cooling loads or zones are equipped with tertiary pumps, as shown in Fig 159a The overall efficiency of these systems is much less than that of the primary-secondary systems, particularly those with a central zone and booster pumps, as described earlier The efficiency of existing primarysecondary-tertiary systems may be improved by converting the tertiary systems to variable-speed booster systems Also, additions to existing primary-secondary-tertiary systems can be made by eliminating this costly arrangement and using a variable-speed pump with bypass, as shown in Fig 159b 155 Comparison of Energy for Variable Primary with Primary/Secondary One of the advantages of variable primary pumping over primary/ secondary is the reduction in pumping energy This is primarily due to the elimination of the pump fittings required for the secondary pumps; Fig 95c describes these losses Also, chiller plant piping is usually simpler for variable primary pumping Figure 1510 illustrates the reduction in energy consumption for a three-pump, 15hp variable primary pumping system when compared to a similar primary-secondary system In this case, the reduction varies from 10 to 20 percent The actual reduction for each installation will, of course, depend upon the total pump head as well as the sizing of the pump fittings, such as pump check valves, shutoff valves, and suction strainers
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 159 Primary-secondary-tertiary distribution systems
Chilled Water Distribution Systems Chilled Water Distribution Systems 427
2500 Pump kW Primary-secondary 2000
1500 Primary-only 1000
000 10%
30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % GPM
Figure 1510 Comparison of energy for variable primary pumping with
primary/secondary (From Primary Only vs Primary Secondary Variable Flow Systems, Steven T Taylor, PE, ASHRAE Journal, February 2002 Used with permission)
156 Distributed Pumping Distributed pumping was developed around 1967 to secure a simpler pumping system for campus-type installations where some buildings were near the central energy plant and others were far from that plant Distributed pumping also was developed to eliminate many of the energy consumers such as crossover bridges, three-way control valves, and return temperature-control valves It is obvious from the preceding descriptions of other types of systems that much energy is wasted in pumping circuits Sizable reductions in pump horsepower, pumping energy, and initial cost have been achieved with this type of pumping In most cases, the system friction and pump motors have been large enough to always justify variable-speed pumps in the buildings There is no reason why this principle cannot be used in small systems with relatively low pump head and constant-speed pumps Distributed pumping is a very simple pumping arrangement as well as the most efficient pumping system for (1) large, multiple-zone
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