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Closed Condenser Water Systems 444 Pumps for Closed HVAC Cooling Systems
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Figure 161 Closed condenser water systems
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162 Reasons for Closed Condenser Systems Closed condenser water systems are used for several reasons: 1 The condenser circuit must be closed or pressurized 2 The chemicals or particulate matter seen in open condenser water systems cannot be tolerated 3 Other physical factors involved with cooling towers may make them unacceptable for the installation
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Closed Condenser Water Systems Closed Condenser Water Systems 445
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4 There is a desire to capture and use the heat of rejection from the chiller or process 5 Chemicals such as glycol are used that cannot be passed through a cooling tower 163 Types of Closed Condenser Systems There are standard closed-circuit condenser systems, special-use systems, and heat-recovery condenser systems The most elemental pumping arrangement for a closed condenser circuit is shown in Fig 161b for a chiller rejecting its heat to a closed-circuit cooler No attempt is being made in this case to use the heat of rejection A small circulator is supplied with the closed-circuit cooler for the spray water Figure 161a describes another simple closed system using a heat exchanger and a cooling tower This system, of course, requires both condenser and cooling tower pumps In both these cases, the pumping systems are very straightforward and have been described in other chapters of this book The decision as to whether cooling towers with heat exchangers or closed-circuit coolers are used depends on the costs and installation factors of each application The size of this equipment may be reduced through the use of heat-recovery equipment described later The heat exchanger and closed-circuit cooler are water-to-air heatrejection systems A third system using underground coils has been developed for closed condenser systems; this is a water-to-ground heat-rejection system Such an installation is particularly suitable for variable-speed pumps owing to the greater friction of the underground coils
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1631 Special closed condenser systems
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There are special-use closed condenser systems that are designed to accommodate specific types of equipment that must be cooled A special use of closed condenser circuits is the pumping of condenser water for computer air-conditioners A typical installation is shown in Fig 162a Normally, this water system would be filled with a glycol solution if it must sustain a broad range of temperatures from summer to winter operation Such a temperature variation with glycol may produce a sizable change in viscosity and therefore in pumping head and energy A simple method of solving this problem is through the use of variablespeed pumps that maintain the required differential pressure at the condenser coils of the computer air-conditioners regardless of the temperature and viscosity of the glycol solution An energy evaluation must
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Closed Condenser Water Systems 446 Pumps for Closed HVAC Cooling Systems
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Figure 162 Special closed condenser water systems (From Variable Water Volume Is
Hydro-Electronics, SYSTECON, Inc, West Chester, Ohio, 1986, p 30)
be run at minimum and maximum temperatures to determine the variation in pump head due to the changes in viscosity and specific gravity of the glycol solution Although this is substantially a constant-volume, variable-head system, the variable-speed pump allows the system to run at the true diversity of the system under all load conditions Also, individual air-conditioners or groups of them can be shut down, and no readjustment of the cooling system is required
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Closed Condenser Water Systems Closed Condenser Water Systems 447
164 Heat-Recovery Condenser Systems There has been a desire to capture the heat of rejection from watercooling equipment such as chillers This has resulted in heat-recovery equipment such as water source heat pumps and heat-reclaim chillers Water source heat pumps can be terminal-type located near the heating and cooling loads or they can be central-type located in major equipment rooms The amount of heat recoverable is appreciable; for example, a 1000-ton chiller operating over a cooling season of 2000 hours with an average heat rejection of 15,000 Btu /ton has a total heat rejection of 30 billion Btu! If only 50 percent of this energy is reclaimed, this amounts to 15 billion Btu, which, at an overall boiler efficiency of 80 percent, is equivalent 18,750,000 ft 3 of natural gas with a heating value of 1000 Btu /ft3 At a cost of $500 per thousand cubic feet, the annual savings would be over $93,000 An audit should be made on cooling tower installations to determine the economic feasibility of energy recovery The development of plate and frame heat exchangers and condensing boilers has resulted in low-temperature thermal operations that can enhance the recovery of heat from chiller condensers See Chap 32
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