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leaving water temperature provides the lowest energy consumption in a hot water system Figure 191 demonstrates the great increase in efficiency secured by operating a boiler at low entering water temperatures The condensing-type boiler increases these opportunities Zone reset of water temperature may appear to have some advantages, but on most installations, the economies of boiler reset and eliminating zone reset valving more than offset the energy saved by zone temperature reset Specific installations where some zones have much more glass load than others might justify reset of the zone temperature on a particular zone 8 on the use of water in HVAC systems has specific information on the pumping costs of zone reset 199 Boiler Controls A brief review of boiler control should be included, since boiler sequencing and interfacing with pump controls are often encountered on HVAC heating systems There are three basic types of boiler control: 1 On-off control The operating controller, such as a thermostat or pressure control, starts and stops the boiler firing equipment The boiler operates at design firing rate This is the least efficient control system, since there is a standby loss whenever the boiler is not operating Also, the flue gas loss is highest at design firing rate 2 High-low-off control This control procedure is more efficient than the on-off control, but it does not eliminate all inefficient operation Instead of turning on and off, the burner returns to a low firing rate before stopping With proper adjustment, the boiler can operate between low and high firing continuously on much of the load range 3 Modulated firing This control varies the firing rate and combustion airflow with the load and eliminates much of the starting and stopping of the boiler The load range for most noncondensing boilers is around 30 through 100 percent of full-load firing Some condensing boiler manufacturers quote operating ranges as broad as 8 to 100 percent This great range reduces the time the boiler is shut down, and therefore, the standby loss is reduced appreciably Modulating firing is the most efficient boiler control because it eliminates much of the standby loss and accomplishes most of the operation at an off-peak firing rate This type of control is easy to interface with boiler reset and other control algorithms, since the firing controls can accept a standard 4- to 20-mA signal from the other system controls
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Steam and Hot Water Boilers Steam and Hot Water Boilers 493
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Interfacing boilers efficiently with hot water systems has become much easier with digital electronics; piping has become simpler too Studies have shown that existing, older boilers have seasonal efficiencies as low as 50 percent With the newer digital controls and the contemporary boilers, particularly condensing boilers, the seasonal boiler efficiencies should rise dramatically 1910 Bibliography
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Systems and Equipment Handbook, ASHRAE, Atlanta, Ga, 1992
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Source: HVAC Pump Handbook
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Low-Temperature Hot Water Heating Systems
201 Introduction Low-temperature hot water heating systems comprise the majority of HVAC hot water heating systems The obvious reason for this is the lack of a need for water temperatures in excess of 250 F on most of these systems Also, the advent of the condensing boiler has driven down the design water temperature of many systems As was discussed in Chap 19, lower operating water temperatures increase appreciably the boiler efficiency This fact and the development of the variable-speed pump constitute two of the greatest improvements in the efficiency of space heating in commercial, governmental, educational, institutional, and industrial buildings Residential heating by hot water will not be included herein, since this is a specific field by itself Also, the pumps for residential heating consist of small circulators whose horsepower is not of major consideration in terms of energy use 202 Classification of Hot Water Systems Hot water systems in HVAC can be classified as to the source of their heat as well as by use of the hot water These systems receive their heat from (1) electric or fuel-fired boilers, (2) low- and high-pressure steam, (3) medium- and high-temperature water, (4) district heating, and (5) heat recovery Hot water is used for (1) space heating, (2) heating of outside air, (3) reheat in cooling systems, and (4) process heating in industry Heating of domestic water is not considered to be an HVAC hot water system
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