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TABLE 36
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Values of C for the Williams-Hazen Formula Values of C
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Type of pipe Cement asbestos Fiber Bitumastic- or enamellined iron or steel, centrifugally applied Cement-lined iron or steel, centrifugally applied Copper, brass, or glass piping or tubing Welded or seamless steel Wrought iron Cast iron
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SOURCE: Cameron Hydraulic Data, 15th ed, Ingersoll Rand Company, Woodcliff, NJ, 1977; used with permission
For values of C, 1 Range: High is for smooth and well-installed pipe; low is for poor or corroded pipe 2 The average value is for good clean and new pipe 3 The design value is the common value used for design purposes
Note The American Iron and Steel Institute recommends a C factor of 140 for steel pipe for hot and chilled water systems There is some confusion in the industry about the use of the WilliamsHazen formula It is very adequate for cold water such as chilled water A number of organizations publish Williams-Hazen data for various pipe sizes; organizations such as the American Iron and Steel Institute provide manuals on piping that include Williams-Hazen friction data on the water flow in the commercial sizes of steel pipe It is very adequate for cold water such as chilled water Since it cannot easily accommodate viscosity or specific gravity corrections, it should not be used for hot water systems
335 Review of pipe friction and velocities
The preceding recommendations are the result of my experience; every designer should develop parameters based on his or her experience It should be pointed out that pipe friction is not an exact science A study of the available literature will demonstrate the variations that can exist with pipe friction when manufacturing tolerances and specific aging processes are included This has caused some designers to use much larger safety factors in their design of piping
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Piping System Friction 56 The Basic Tools
The figures and tables of this chapter provide data that can be referred to during a piping design procedure Software is also available that implements the formulas and eliminates much of the drudgery in calculating pipe friction Software packages are available from various sources at reasonable costs It is urged that the design basis for such software be fully understood before it is used on a project Designers with knowledge of software and computers can develop some of their own computer programs for pipe friction by using the aforementioned equations 34 Steel and Cast Iron Pipe Fittings A significant part of the friction loss for HVAC piping is caused by the various fittings that are used to connect the piping There have been some very unacceptable practices used for the calculation of fitting losses For example, some people recommend that the pipe friction be calculated and a percentage of that loss be added for the pipe fitting and valve losses This is a very poor and inexact method of computing friction losses for valves and fittings The proper method of computing fitting loss is to determine that loss for each and every fitting and valve Again, the Hydraulic Institute s Engineering Data Book and Ingersol Rand s Cameron Hydraulic Data are excellent sources for fitting and valve losses Interesting data on the possible variations in the friction losses for fittings and valves are included in Table 32(c) of the Hydraulic Institute s Engineering Data Book; variations from 10 percent to as high as 50 percent are described Most fitting losses are referenced to the velocity head V 2/2g of the water flowing in the pipe Table 35 for steel pipe friction lists the velocity head at various flows in the pipe A K factor has been developed for many of the popular pipe fittings so that the loss through fittings Hf is Hf K V2 2g (37)
The Hydraulic Institute provides various K factors for valves and fittings in their Engineering Data Book; these are listed in Tables 37 through 312 as approximate values Unfortunately, at this writing, many popular fittings such as reducing elbows or tees have no data Also, welded steel pipe reducers have significant losses, and there are no reliable data on them
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