how to print barcode in c# net Miscellaneous K factors in Software

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Miscellaneous K factors
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Couplings and unions Couplings and unions depend on the quality of manufacture Assume an average K factor of 005 for them
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Piping System Friction Piping System Friction 57
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TABLE 37
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K Factors for Inlets from Open Tanks Type of inlet Bell-mouth inlet Square-edged inlet Inward-projecting pipe K factor 005 050 10*
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*K decreases with increases in wall thickness and rounding of edges
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TABLE 38
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K Factors for Elbows, 90 Regular screwed 210 170 150 130 120 100 085 076 065 Long-radius screwed 085 076 065 053 043 036 029 023 Regular flanged 043 040 039 037 035 033 032 029 027 025 024 023 023 022 022 021 Long-radius flanged 037 035 031 027 025 022 018 015 014 013 012 011 010 009
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Size, in 00 2 3 00 4 01 1 01 4 1 01 2 02 1 02 2 03 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
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TABLE 39
K Factors for Elbows, 45 Regular screwed 036 035 033 032 031 030 029 028 027 Long-radius flanged 021 020 018 017 015 014 014 013 012 011 010 009 008
Size, in 001 2 3 00 4 01 1 01 4 1 01 2 02 1 02 2 03 04 06 08 10 12 14 16
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Piping System Friction 58 The Basic Tools
TABLE 310
K Factors for Tees Screwed-type, branch flow 240 210 190 170 160 140 130 120 110 Flanged, line flow 027 025 023 020 018 017 015 012 010 009 009 008 008 007 007 Flanged, branch flow 100 094 090 083 080 075 070 061 058 054 052 051 047 044 042
Size, in 001 2 003 4 01 011 4 011 2 02 021 2 03 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20
NOTE: For screwed-type, line flow tees, a K factor of 090 is used for all sizes
TABLE 311
K Factors for Globe and Gate Valves (100 percent Globe valves Gate valves Screwed 032 028 024 022 020 017 015 014 012 Flanged 022 016 011 008 006 005 005 005 004 003
open)
Size, in 001 2 003 4 01 011 4 011 2 02 021 2 03 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20
Screwed 140 100 087 080 075 069 065 060 058
Flanged 140 120 100 085 079 070 064 059 057 057 056 056 056 056 056
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Piping System Friction Piping System Friction 59
TABLE 312
K Factors for Miscellaneous Valves (100 percent open) Screwed check 56 37 30 27 25 23 22 22 22 Angle valve Screwed 55 47 38 30 22 17 14 10 Flanged 50 37 30 25 23 22 22 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 Ball valve* 011 010 009 009 008 007 007 006 005 005 005 004 004 004 Butterfly valve 35 30 15 10 08 07 07 06 06
Size, in
1 2 3 4
1 11 4 11 2 2 21 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
NOTE:
Flanged check valves are assumed to have a K factor of 20 for all sizes
Reducing bushings and couplings The K factor for reducing bushings can vary from 005 to 20 Replace them wherever possible with threaded tapered fittings Sudden enlargements Sudden enlargements such as reducing flanges can have a K factor as high as 10 Replace them with tapered fittings wherever possible
341 Tapered fittings
There are a number of tests and equations for computing the K factors for tapered fittings Like other fitting calculations, they are, at best, approximate Two of the most accurate calculations seem to be those included in Cameron Hydraulic Data
Tapered reducing fittings
K where d1 d2
08 sin
d12 d22
(38)
total angle of reduction smaller, leaving pipe diameter larger, entering pipe diameter
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Piping System Friction 60 The Basic Tools
Tapered enlarging fittings
K where d1 d2
26 sin
d12 d22
(39)
total angle of enlargement smaller, entering pipe diameter larger, leaving pipe diameter
Note Do not use these formula for steel reducing fittings! Steel reducing fittings are not tapered; they have a reverse, ogee curve that causes a much greater friction loss Until better data are available, use the following equation for the friction loss in steel reducing or increasing fittings:
Hf where V1 V2
V12 2g
(310)
velocity in the smaller pipe velocity in the larger pipe
Table 313 is for commercially available cast iron tapered fittings, both reducing and increasing, using Eqs 38 and 39 The use of equivalent feet of pipe as a means of calculating friction in fittings and valves does not seem to provide as accurate results as the K factors of the Hydraulic Institute Data on fitting and valve losses, as indicated previously, are at best approximate Following is a list of the fittings and valves that are encountered in HVAC systems: 1 Tees, straight or reducing, with flow through the run and through the branch 2 Elbows, straight or reducing, of various radii 3 Valves, ball, gate, globe, or butterfly 4 Reducers and increasers, cast iron taper type 5 Reducers and increasers, steel type 6 Strainers 7 Flow meters 8 Entrance and exit losses from tanks It should be noted that the following devices are not included in the preceding list of fittings All these devices waste energy and should be avoided if possible and used only as a last resort:
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