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Piping System Friction 70 The Basic Tools
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3 Hydraulic shock Plastic pipe does not have the withstandability of steel pipe The actual configuration of the plastic pipe installation, including methods of support, should be approved by the manufacturer of the plastic pipe 4 Maximum allowable velocity Table 32 outlines maximum velocities for steel pipe These velocities are excessive for most types of plastic pipe Actual maximum velocities under consideration for a specific installation of plastic pipe should be approved by the manufacturer of the plastic pipe Most manufacturers of plastic pipe have very good application manuals that provide most of the answers to the preceding installation variables
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351 Types of plastic pipe used in HVAC
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Following is information on the some of the more common plastic pipe used in HVAC water systems: PVC Polyvinyl chloride pipe: ASTM D-1784 Class 12454-B CPVC Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipe: ASTM D-1784 Class 23447-B PVC pipe has been the preferred plastic pipe for HVAC water systems for many years For installations operating at higher temperatures, CPVC has provided an excellent material for piping The pressure-temperature relationships for these types of plastic pipe are provided in Table 315
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TABLE 315 Maximum Operating Pressure (psig) versus Temperature ( F) Operating temperature Up to 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
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PVC 150 135 110 75 50 NR NR NR NR NR NR
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CPVC 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
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Piping System Friction Piping System Friction 71
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TABLE 316 PVC and CPVC Plastic Pipe: Inside Diameters (in) Schedule 40 0622 0824 1 1049 11 4 1380 11 2 1610 2 2067 21 2 2469
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1 2 3 4
Schedule 80 0546 0742 1 0957 11 4 1278 11 2 1500 2 1939 21 2 2323
1 2 3 4
3 3068 4 4026 6 6065 8 7981 10 10020 12 11938 14 13124 16 15000
3 2900 4 3826 6 5761 8 7625 10 9564 12 11376 14 12500 16 14314
Hydraulic shock and ambient temperature are factors that must be considered with plastic pipe; greater care must be exerted with plastic pipe than while designing with steel pipe of equivalent sizes Like other types of piping, the inside diameter of the pipe under consideration must be checked before consulting a pipe friction table Table 316 provides the inside pipe diameters for the Schedules 40 and 80 PVC and CPVC pipe Friction losses for Schedule 40 PVC and CPVC pipe can be determined from Fig 310 and Schedule 80 PVC and CPVC pipe from Fig 311 36 Copper Pipe and Tubing Copper pipe is not used extensively in HVAC systems like steel pipe It is of value on HVAC equipment assemblies, and tables for friction of water in it up to 2 in size are included in Table 317 The friction losses in copper fittings should be evaluated as has been done for plastic pipe; ASHRAE has under consideration the testing of the flow of water in the smaller copper fittings Questions about friction of refrigerant flow in copper pipe should be referred to the refrigerant manufacturers 37 Glycol Solutions Few special liquids are used in the HVAC industry, but both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are found in these water systems The friction for ethylene glycol based, heat transfer solutions can be computed using Fig 24, which shows the variation in viscosity for various temperatures and percent of solution Once the viscosity is known, the Reynolds number can be determined, and then the f factor can be computed for the Darcy Weisbach equation The pump
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Piping System Friction 72 The Basic Tools
Figure 310 Friction loss in schedule 40 PVC and CPVC, IPS-OD (Reprinted by permission
from Engineering & Specifications Manual, IPEX, Inc, 2000)
horsepower is increased due to the higher specific gravity; this will be discussed in Chap 6 The specific gravity of ethylene glycol based heat transfer solutions is provided in Fig 25 For heat transfer work, Fig 27 provides specific heat data Care should be taken in selecting the percentage of glycol used in a water system This percentage should be such that the pumps never operate near the freezing curve shown in Figs 21 and 22 Slush can form as the freezing temperature is approached, causing poor pump performance
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