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Basics of Pump Design 102 HVAC Pumps and Their Performance
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491 Volute-type centrifugal pumps
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The pump impeller produces the pump head, but it must be housed in a body that collects the water and delivers it to the system piping In volute-type pumps, the body collects the water from the impeller and moves it around to the pump discharge connection (Fig 42b, c) This body is called the volute Unlike the axial-flow pump, normally, there are no collecting vanes in the body or volute to aid the flow The cost of adding these volute vanes or diffusers would be prohibitive in volutetype pumps Most small HVAC centrifugal pumps are volute pumps, since this type of pump lends itself to many different configurations that will be described in Chap 5 Larger volute pumps may be equipped with what is called a double volute (Fig 42c) This pump has a second volute cast into its casing Radial thrust on a pump shaft can be reduced by means of the double-volute construction The second passage in the volute should not be confused with the diffusers of axial-flow pumps There is very little need for double-volute pumps in HVAC work, particularly with variable-speed pumps, in which the radial thrust is very low under most operating conditions Radial thrust will be described in detail in Chap 6
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492 Axial-flow centrifugal pumps
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Axial flow pumps are arranged to pass water through a body that is called a bowl This bowl has suction and discharge ports and contains diffuser vanes that aid the flow of water through the bowl Because of the vanes, these pumps are often called diffuser pumps Water flows out uniformly 360 degrees around the impeller; Fig 47 illustrates this flow The pump body or bowl vanes are similar to the impeller vanes and they aid the diffusion of water out of the impeller into the bowl and then into the discharge pipe or another bowl 410 Open or Closed Impellers There are several types of impellers available for clear service (clean water): closed, semiopen, and open Most of the impellers of pumps in the HVAC industry are of the closed type Closed-type impellers have a shroud and utilize case wear rings to impede bypassing Other impellers are open type without shrouds or case wear rings Usually, they are found in larger axial-flow pumps For most HVAC applications, the closed impeller with case wear rings provides the highest efficiency; this efficiency is sustained longer due to the ability of the pump designer to develop the smallest possible clearance between the impeller and the
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Basics of Pump Design Basics of Pump Design 103
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Figure 47 Cross-section of an axial flow bowl (Courtesy
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Basics of Pump Design 104 HVAC Pumps and Their Performance
case wear ring This reduces the flow of water from the discharge area with its higher pressure back to the suction connection with its lower pressure This unwanted water flow is called bypassing or suction recirculation in the pump industry Certified testing, which is discussed later, proves the quality of the pump designer s work and the pump manufacturing to produce the lowest amount of water bypassing at the case rings and therefore the highest pump efficiency
411 General Pump Design Information This chapter offers some very preliminary information on pump design The pump types used in the HVAC industry are very standard designs that have been available for many years Much has been done to secure maximum efficiency from these pumps Like any other industry, there are practices that reduce the quality of pump design and manufacturing Poor casting and finishing of impellers and volutes as well as eliminating casing wear rings on some designs reduces the possibilities of sustained, high pump efficiencies There is considerable additional information available in the pump industry for the HVAC design engineer who desires to study pump design further Most of the pump manufacturers provide extensive information on their pump designs Hydraulic Institute maintains pump design and testing standards that are available to water system designers
412 The Quality of HVAC Pumps Over the years, the industrial and municipal pump industries have been derisive of HVAC pumps, calling them throw-away pumps Such may have been the case in the past, but most of the pumps sold for HVAC installations now are of a quality equal to those of other industries Energy is of concern in this industry causing development of pumps equal in efficiency to other pumps As in any pump application, concern should be made to ensure the quality of the pumps Figures 44 and 45 should be reviewed to discern the difference between quality and inferior pumps A simple inspection of the pump suction can reveal the difference Figure 48a provides how the quality of an end-suction pump can be determined by inspecting its suction The throat of the suction should transform smoothly to the internal diameter of the impeller as shown in Fig 48a There should be no abrupt change from the throat to the internal diameter of the impeller as described in Fig 48b On large installations involving a number of
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