vb.net print barcode labels The overall efficiency of the water system becomes WS 38 100 139 273 percent in Software

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This demonstrates that only slightly more than one-fourth of the energy applied to the pump motors is being used for efficient transportation of the water through the system As dramatic as this may seem, there are water systems utilizing constant-speed pumps and mechanical devices to overcome the pump overpressure where less than 10 percent of the energy applied is used to move the needed water through the system at moderate and low loads on the system
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The Use of Water in HVAC Systems 216 The HVAC World
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These equations for energy consumed, energy applied, and system efficiency are for the water system in total Similar evaluations for energy consumption must be made for all parts of a water system to ensure that maximum system efficiency is achieved In Chap 6, wireto-water efficiency for pumping systems was addressed Examples of this efficiency will be found throughout this book The use of Eq 83 to evaluate the efficiency of pumping for an HVAC system may be cumbersome and the answer difficult to determine Also, the use of small pipe and high friction losses may provide a relatively high efficiency for a poorly designed system The use of Eq 83 is more relative than absolute in comparing different piping system designs with the same level of pipe friction
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Energy consumption of water distribution
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There are other equations for chilled water and hot water systems that are useful to determine the effectiveness of pumping They are easier to compute than Eq 83 and provide absolute values For example, for chilled water, kW/100 tons 0452 H P E T F (87)
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where H P E T
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system head pump efficiency motor efficiency or wire-to-shaft efficiency of a variablespeed drive and motor for variable-speed pumps system temperature difference
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For example, if the system head H is 100 ft, the pump efficiency 82 percent, the wire-to-shaft efficiency 89 percent, and the temperature differential 12 F, then kW/100 tons 0452 100 082 089 12 516 kW/100 tons
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If flow and watt transmitters are measuring system flow and kilowatts of the pumps for the chilled water, an alternate equation (Eq 85) utilizes values measured from the actual system This equation enables the operators of the water system to measure continuously the energy consumed in distributing the chilled water kW/100 tons 2400 pump kW gal/min T F (88)
For example, if secondary pumps are pumping 1000 gal/min at a system temperature difference of 12 F and are consuming 258 kW, then
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The Use of Water in HVAC Systems The Use of Water in HVAC Systems 217
kW/100 tons for hot water,
2400 258 1000 12
516 kW/100 tons
kW/1000 mbh
2348 H E T F
(89)
where is the specific weight of the hot water at operating temperature See Tables 23 and 24 Like chilled water, if watt transmitters are available to measure the energy input to the hot water pumps, the following equation can be used: kW/1000 mbh 124,700 gal/min pump kW T F (810)
For example, if the secondary hot water pumps are pumping 500 gal/min of 180 F water at a system temperature difference of 40 F and are consuming 102 kW, then kW/1000 mbh 124,700 102 500 40 6057 105 kW/1000 mbh
where 6057 is the specific weight of water at 180 F Examples of these energy rates in kilowatts per 100 tons or kilowatts per 1000 mbh will be included in various chapters of this book
813 Energy lost to mechanical flow-control devices
In this day of concern over energy conservation, as we begin the design of an HVAC water system, it is imperative that we reevaluate our standard practices to see where we are wasting energy With computer-aided design, it is much easier to develop part-load information and a closer evaluation of diversity on hot and chilled water systems This provides the basis for more efficient piping designs that do not need mechanical devices to circulate the water throughout the system For example, on a recent evaluation of a Midwestern university, a chilled water pumping system was in operation with balance valves on the pump discharges There was a 58-lb/in2 pressure drop across these balance valves, and each year around 900,000 kWh was wasted by them As discussed in Chap 2, the thermal equivalent of a brake horsepower is 2545 Btu/h, and that for a kilowatthour is 3412 Btu/h This energy must be accounted for in the calculation of heating and cooling
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