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831 Three-way valves for hot and chilled water coils
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When three-way valves were used predominantly on these coils, the systems were constant flow, and there was little concern for energy savings The three-way control valve wastes energy by bypassing the supply water around the coil, as shown in Fig 85a On variablevolume chilled water systems, this has a negative effect on the chillers, since the return temperature to the chillers is reduced The chillers reach rated water flow long before they achieve design load in tons This forces more than one chiller to operate when the cooling load is less than the capacity of one chiller
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832 Two-way valve with circulator
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Recognizing the deficiency of the three-way valve, efforts have been made to control the return water temperature by replacing the threeway valve with a two-way valve using a circulator on the coil (see Fig 85b) Laminar flow was eliminated with this arrangement, but dirty coils could still pass water through the control valve below design temperature on chilled water systems The significant defect of this arrangement is the continuous operation of the coil pump whenever
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The Use of Water in HVAC Systems The Use of Water in HVAC Systems 227
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Coil connections for hot and chilled water systems
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the building chilled water system is in operation Also, the wire-towater efficiency of many coil pumps is low, around 35 to 45 percent, when compared with most secondary pumps that have similar efficiencies of 60 to 70 percent Further, the added piping and wiring raises the first cost and increases the total friction head of the system
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The Use of Water in HVAC Systems 228 The HVAC World
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833 Contemporary two-way valve connection
The ability to evaluate more accurately the pressure drops that could occur across control valves has resulted in the selection of valves better fitted to a specific application This has culminated in use of the two-way valve directly connected to its coil and the supply and return headers (see Fig 85c) With proper calculation of maximum possible pressure drop across the valve, the valve and its actuator can be sized to operate under these pressures without damage or lifting of the valve head off the valve seat
834 Energy evaluations for three different coil connections
Following are energy analyses using these three coil and control-valve connections This energy audit should demonstrate the need to eliminate three-way valves and coil circulators on most variable-volume systems Circulators in coil bypasses do have specific uses on existing systems, and these will be demonstrated in this chapter It is difficult to locate the right place in this book for the following energy discussion This is so important that it must be addressed before specific installations are reviewed 9 will develop the primary/secondary pumping systems that were used with the older coil circulator and three-way valve installations shown in Fig 86a and 86b Variable primary pump will also be described there; it is
3 constant speed pumps 1000 GPM EA @ 84 ft 8 ft loss across pump fittings Supply header loss = 25 ft
From chillers Chiller loop bypass
Coil
Ten coils 26 Ft loss across coil, valve, and piping
Return header loss = 25 ft To chillers a Secondary chilled water system with three-way control valves
Water systems with the three coil connections
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The Use of Water in HVAC Systems The Use of Water in HVAC Systems 229
3 1000 GPM @ 72 ft variable speed pumps 25 HP motors
Circulator 200 GPM @ 14' 1 1/2 HP motor
10 200 GPM coil 2' Piping 2' Pump fitting Balance valve: 2 ft 10' Coil 16' Pump head
Ten coils Coil Coil P Balance vlave DP set at 14 ft Ten coils Coil P P set at 26 ft
Chiller loop bypass
b Secondary chilled water system with coil circulators From variable primary pumping
2000 GPM at 76 ft head
Chiller minimum flow valve Chiller bypass
To variable primary pumps
Two-way control valves
c Contempory system with two-way control valves
(Continued)
the recommended system now for contemporary two-way coil valve projects Also, the remote differential transmitter shown in these figures for pump speed control is described in Chap 10 Energy consumption in HVAC water systems is very dependent on the proper use of water in these systems The following coil connections impinge heavily on energy consumption in hot and chilled water systems The great variation in energy use will be demonstrated for
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