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Configuring an HVAC Water System Configuring an HVAC Water System 253
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Model building loading
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aware of how complex true system evaluation can be and that a HVAC water system cannot be represented by a simple system head curve Figure 95b describes an analysis made of actual data from a chilled water system This demonstrates that the load never reached design flow or head and did not have the broad head range calculated for Fig 95a
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Configuring an HVAC Water System 254 The HVAC World
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Loads active far from water source
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50 (153) Building head ft of water (Meters)
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30 (92) Loads active near water source Uniform system head curve
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Building flow GPM (CU meters/HR)
Figure 95a
System head area
One of the great opportunities available to us now with contemporary computers is the ability to actually track and develop a system head area for an existing system Figure 96 describes the instrumentation needed, namely, a flow meter and a differential pressure transmitter located across the headers of the pumping system The computer simultaneously reads these two signals and plots a point within the actual system head area This can be done once a minute, an hour, or whatever is needed for a particular installation After a period of time, the actual system head area will evolve with all of the flow-head points plotted on a head-flow diagram The result may be something like that shown in Fig 95b where the actual system head area is plotted over a period of time Of what value is this This diagram provides the true head-flow relationship for a variable-speed pumping system From this, an analysis can be made of the actual compatibility of the pumping system with the water system
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Configuring an HVAC Water System Configuring an HVAC Water System 255
80 Design point
System head ft
Design flow 2160 GPM 40
Static head 20
1000 1500 System flow GPM
Figure 95b
Actual system head area
This is elementary manual modeling of a water system With computers, such system head areas can be developed easily Without a computer, a simple procedure that works practically is to adjust the distribution friction at 50 percent water flow, ie, 11 ft in our model building at 50 percent load This variable or distribution friction can be multiplied by 20 percent for the lower curve and then by 150 percent for the upper curve Drawing curves similar to Fig 95a through these points will generate an approximate system head area This system head area will give designers a rough idea of what the system head area will be, and it will enable them to predict pump performance within this system head area A further discussion of the operation of pumps with the system head area will be presented in Chap 15 Campus-type installations with a number of buildings, as shown in Fig 97a, create another dimension in system head areas and system modeling As demonstrated in this figure, there are buildings near the central energy plant and buildings far from it This figure has two of our model buildings, building A near the central plant and building B far from the central plant It is obvious that the campus loop loss will
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Configuring an HVAC Water System 256 The HVAC World
FT Flow meter VFD
Control center DPT
Differential pressure transmitter
Instrumentation for generating an actual system head area
be greater for building B than for building A If the loop loss is 30 ft in the distribution mains out and back for building B with all the buildings fully loaded, this loss will be determined by how active are all the intermediate buildings There are two ultimate conditions that must be checked: first, with all the intermediate buildings fully loaded, and second, with all these buildings having no load Using the preceding procedure for determining system head produces the system head area of Fig 97b The upper curve is for the first condition, where all the intermediate buildings are fully loaded, and the bottom curve is for the second condition, where these buildings have no load This figure demonstrates the great variation that can occur in the head required for a campus building located far from the central energy plant Here again, computer modeling can produce system head areas for every building on a campus under a number of different load conditions
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