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If the building in the preceding example were the building that determines the static pressure for the system and the friction loss between it and the central energy plant was 50 ft at design flow, then the static pressure would be 650 10 420 (144/6057) 50 122 psig
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Configuring an HVAC Water System 262 The HVAC World
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This will be explained further in this book with other design criteria for this important method of water distribution 95 Three Zones of HVAC Water Systems Almost all HVAC water systems are of the loop type; this means that the water is returned to its source such as a chiller, cooling tower, or boiler In rare cases, groundwater is used for cooling and is dumped into a sewer or stream after use Most of these water systems consist of three zones, namely, (1) an energy source, (2) energy transportation, and (3) energy use as described in Fig 84 for chilled or hot water Cooling towers are similar in arrangement 8 discussed the use of water, or the third zone It is important to understand that each of these three zones must be designed individually for optimal use of energy Therefore, these zones often are combined together with resulting poor energy generation, transportation, or use Each zone must be evaluated separately; the first and second zones will be reviewed in the chapters on chillers and boilers True energy conservation in HVAC systems begins with careful analysis of energy consumption in boilers, chillers, or cooling towers s 11, 14, and 19 of this book will study this analysis of energy consumption Many times the second zone, energy transportation, is mixed with energy generation; this can result in poor energy generation and transportation if care is not used in evaluating the total energy consumption of the system Efficient energy transportation will be discussed in Chaps 15, 16, 18, and 20 on cooling and heating systems Finally, the use of water in cooling and heating coils or heat exchangers must be efficient or pumping costs will be excessive As indicated in Chap 8, the indiscriminate use of balance valves, threeway control valves, and improper heating and cooling coil connections results in poor system efficiency If these three zones are remembered during design and each treated as efficiently as possible, this effort should result in a good pumping and piping system 96 Piping Configurations A number of different piping configurations are used in HVAC water systems; only the more popular types will be discussed here These are: 1 Open or closed systems and how water is returned to the source, namely, direct or reverse return 2 Number of pipes to transport the water through the system
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Configuring an HVAC Water System Configuring an HVAC Water System 263
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961 Three types of systems
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There are three basic system arrangements in HVAC piping: (1) direct return systems for loop piping, (2) reverse return systems for loop piping, and (3) open piping systems for open tanks such as cooling towers and energy-storage systems Figure 99a and b describes direct and reverse return piping, and Fig 910a describes an open piping system utilizing a cooling tower At one time, reverse return piping was always used to balance the friction to all terminal units, particularly when they were equipped with three-way temperature-control valves Today, with the great emphasis on energy savings, three-way temperature-control valves have very few logical applications Reverse return piping can be useful on buildings where it may be the most economical arrangement This is shown in Fig 911, where the supply pipe can go up one side of a building and down the other One advantage for reverse return piping is the reduction in maximum pressure drop across the temperature-control valves Figure 99c is a pressure-gradient diagram for a reverse return system that demonstrates this fact This diagram demonstrates why reverse return piping should be used on constant-volume systems With the same pressure drop across each cooling coil, its control valve, and piping, balancing the system is much easier than with direct return This diagram also demonstrates why reverse return piping is no longer needed with contemporary control valves on variable-volume systems Direct return piping is the most economical arrangement for most contemporary buildings utilizing the energy savings of variable-volume systems It requires a minimum of piping and usually has less pipe friction than an equivalent reverse return system The pressuregradient diagram for a direct return system is shown in Fig 96 As seen in this diagram, the full pump head can be exerted across the temperature-control valves This is not a problem for the designer of contemporary control valves as long as the maximum head that can be imposed across the control valves is recognized The maximum head is not imposed on the valves except during full-load conditions Open piping systems usually are encountered with cooling towers or open energy-storage tanks; Figure 910a describes a typical open system with a cooling tower serving the condenser of a chiller The pressure-gradient diagram for this system is shown in Fig 910b Pressure-gradient diagrams are seldom needed for elementary cooling tower applications because the operating pressures are relatively low On some complex cooling tower applications and process cooling operations, they are valuable for determining pump head and system arrangement
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