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Without Intruder Lockout on, you may never know you ve been hacked
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maybe simply because the administrative overhead is too great Here is a technique often used to discover intruder lockout Using the Client32 login window, repeatedly try to log in with a known user You ll most likely be using the wrong passwords, so you ll get this message:
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Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions
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You ll know when you ve been locked out when you get this message:
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And the system console will most likely display the following message:
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4-08-99 4:29:28 pm: DS-573-32 Intruder lock-out on account esteinHSS [221E6E0F:0000861CD947] 4-08-99 4:35:19 pm: DS-573-32 Intruder lock-out on account tgoodyHSS [221E6E0F:0000861CD947]
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Detection U Intruder Lockoutany techniqueCountermeasure to detect the intruder lockout We are unaware of to track attackers trying
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After about 20 failed login attempts without receiving the login failure status message, there s a good chance that intruder lockout is not enabled on that system
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feature As far as we know, you cannot change NetWare s default messages regarding a locked account The best you can do is to be diligent and monitor your server console closely Also be sure to follow up with every chronic lockout, no matter how unimportant you may think it is
GAINING ADMIN
As we demonstrated earlier, in most cases user-level access is trivial to obtain either by using chknull to discover users with no password or by simply guessing The next step for most attackers is to gain Administrative rights on a server or tree There are two main techniques: M L Pillage the server (the traditional method) NCP spoofing attacks
Pillaging
Popularity: Simplicity: Impact: Risk Rating: 9 9 8 8
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Novell NetWare Hacking
At this stage, most malicious attackers will simply pilfer and pillage That is, attackers will most likely log in to as many systems as possible in an attempt to find lazy users storing passwords in clear text This outrageous behavior is more prominent than you think Pillaging is somewhat of a black art and difficult to demonstrate The best advice is to just look through every file available for clues and hints You never know, you may just find an administrator s password You can map the root of the SYS volume with the MAP command
map n secret/sys:\
or by using On-Site Look through every available directory Some directories with interesting files include M I I I I L SYS:SYSTEM SYS:ETC SYS:HOME SYS:LOGIN SYS:MAIL SYS:PUBLIC
U Pillaging Countermeasurean attacker from pillaging your NetWare volumes is simThe countermeasure to prevent
ple and straightforward Both suggestions center around restricting rights: M L Enforce restrictive rights on all volumes, directories, and files by using filer Enforce restrictive rights on all NDS objects including Organizations, Organizational Units, server, users, and so on, by using Nwadamn3x
Note that the user you have logged in with may not have access to all these directories, but you may get lucky The directories SYSTEM and ETC are particularly sensitive, as they contain most of the vital configuration files for the server They should only be viewable by the Admin user
Nwpcrack
Popularity: Simplicity: Impact: Risk Rating: 9 9 10 9
Nwpcrack is a NetWare password cracker for NetWare 4x systems The tool allows an attacker to perform a dictionary attack on a specific user In our example, we discov-
Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions
ered a group called Admins Once you log in as a user, you have the ability to see the users who have security equivalence to Admin, or simply who is in administrative groups like Admins, MIS, and so on Doing so, we find both DEOANE and JSYMOENS in the ADMINS group this is whom we ll attack first Running Nwpcrack on DEOANE, we find his password has been cracked, as shown in the following illustration Now we have administrative privilege on that server and any object this user has access to
Don t try using Nwpcrack on Admin accounts with intruder lockout enabled because you ll lock the account out of the tree! Before testing Nwpcrack on the Admin (or equivalent), you should create a backup account equivalent to Admin for testing purposes This little denial of service condition is not available in Windows NT, as the original administrator account cannot be locked out without the use of an additional NT Resource Kit utility called Passprop When intruder lockout is detected with Nwpcrack, you ll receive the message tried password <<password>> with the same password displayed repeatedly This signifies that the NetWare server is no longer accepting login requests for this user At this point you can CTRL-C out of the program, as the server console is undoubtedly displaying the familiar DS-573-32 message: Intruder lock-out on account Admin not good
U Nwpcrack Countermeasure guessing the password of your users (or most likely The countermeasure for Nwpcrack
Admins) is simple: M Enforce strong passwords Novell does not offer an easy solution to this problem Their stance on this issue is to have administrators enforce the strong passwords through policy unlike Microsoft NT s passfiltdll, which allows you to restrict the type of password used, forcing the use of numbers and metacharacters (like !@#$%) At least you can require passwords, specify the number of characters, and disallow duplicates The easiest way to control the length of the password is through the USER_TEMPLATE
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