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Finally, we allow the target server to connect back to our X server via the xhost command and issue the following command from our system to the target server:
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[tsunami]# xhost +quake quake being added to access control list [tsunami]# ftp quake Connected to quake
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The results, a root-owned xterm like the one represented next, will be displayed on our system Because inftpd is called with root privileges from inetd on this system, inetd will execute our script with root privileges resulting in instant root access
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# id uid=0(root) gid=0(root) #
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U NFS Countermeasure and related services (for example, mountd, statd, and If NFS is not required, NFS
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lockd) should be disabled Implement client and user access controls to allow only authorized users to access required files Generally, /etc/exports or /etc/dfs/dfstab or similar files control what file systems are exported and specific options that can be enabled Some options include specifying machine names or netgroups, read-only options, and the ability to disallow the SUID bit Each NFS implementation is slightly different, so consult the user documentation or related man pages Also, never include the server s local IP address or localhost in the list of systems allowed to mount the file system Older versions of the portmapper would allow attackers to proxy connections on behalf of the attackers If the system were allowed to mount the exported file system, attackers could send NFS packets to the target system s portmapper, which in turn would forward the request to the localhost This would make the request appear as if it were coming from a trusted host and bypass any related access control rules Finally, apply all vendor-related patches
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The X Window System provides a wealth of features that allow many programs to share a single graphical display The major problem with X is that its security model is an all or nothing approach Once a client is granted access to an X server, pandemonium is allowed X clients can capture the keystrokes of the console user, kill windows, capture windows for display elsewhere, and even remap the keyboard to issue nefarious commands no matter what the user types Most problems stem from a weak access control paradigm or pure indolence on the part of the system administrator The simplest and most popular form of X access control is xhost authentication This mechanism provides access control by IP address and is the weakest form of X authentication As a matter of convenience, a system administrator will issue xhost +, allowing unauthenticated access to the X server by any local or remote user (+ is a wildcard for any IP address) Worse, many PC-based X servers default to xhost +, unbeknown to their users Attackers can use this seemingly benign weakness to compromise the security of the target server One of the best programs to identify an X server with xhost + enabled is xscan Xscan will scan an entire subnet looking for an open X server and log all keystrokes to a log file
8:
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[tsunami]$ xscan quake Scanning hostname quake Connecting to quake (192168110) on port 6000 Connected Host quake is running X Starting keyboard logging of host quake:00 to file KEYLOGquake:00
Now any keystrokes typed at the console will be captured to the KEYLOGquake file
[tsunami]$ tail -f KEYLOGquake:00 su [Shift_L]Iamowned[Shift_R]!
A quick tail of the log file reveals what the user is typing in real time In our example, the user issued the su command followed by the root password of Iamowned! Xscan will even note if the SHIFT keys are pressed It is also easy for attackers to view specific windows running on the target systems Attackers must first determine the window s hex ID by using the xlwins command
[tsunami]# xlswins -display quake:00 |grep -i netscape 0x1000001 (Netscape) 0x1000246 (Netscape) 0x1000561 (Netscape: OpenBSD)
Xlswins will return a lot of information, so in our example, we used grep to see if Netscape was running Luckily for us, it was However, you can just comb through the results of xlswins to identify an interesting window To actually display the Netscape window on our system, we use the XWatchWin program, as shown in Figure 8-3
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