Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions in Software

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Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions
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hide file unhide file execute as root uninstall adore make PID invisible make PID visible
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Rootkit Countermeasures U Kernelcan see, kernel rootkits can be devastating and almost impossible to find You canAs you
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If that isn t enough to scare you, Silvio Cesare has written a paper on associated tools that allow you to patch kernel memory on the fly to back-door systems that don t have LKM support This paper and associated tools can be found at http://wwwbignetau/ ~silvio/runtime-kernel-kmem-patchingtxt Finally, Job De Haas has done some tremendous work in researching kernel hacking on Solaris You can take a look at some beta code he wrote at http://wwwitsxcom/kernmod-02targz
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not trust the binaries or the kernel itself when trying to determine if a system has been compromised Even checksum utilities like Tripwire will be rendered useless when the kernel has been compromised One possible way of detecting knark is to use knark against itself Since knark allows an intruder to hide any process by issuing a kill 31 to a specific PID, you can unhide each process by sending it kill 32 A simple shell script that sends a kill 32 to each process ID will work
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#!/bin/sh rm pid S=1 while [ $S -lt 10000 ] do if kill -32 $S; then echo "$S" >> pid fi S=`expr $S + 1` Done
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Keep in mind that the kill -31 and kill 32 are configurable options when knark is built Thus, a more skilled attacker may change these options to avoid detection However, most unsophisticated attackers will happily use the default settings Prevention is always the best countermeasure we can recommend Using a program such as LIDS (Linux Intrusion Detection System) is a great preventative measure that you can enable for your Linux systems LIDS is available from wwwlidsorg and provides the following capabilities and more: M I The ability to seal the kernel from modification The ability to prevent the loading and unloading of kernel modules
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Immutable and append-only file attributes Locking of shared memory segments Process ID manipulation protection Protect sensitive /dev/ files Port scan detection
LIDS is a kernel patch that must be applied to your existing kernel source, and the kernel must be rebuilt After LIDS is installed, use the lidsadm tool to seal the kernel to prevent much of the aforementioned LKM shenanigans Let s see what happens when LIDS is enabled and we try to run knark:
[shadow]# insmod knarko Command terminated on signal 1
A look at /var/log/messages indicates that LIDS not only detected the attempt to load the module, but also proactively prevented it
Jul 9 13:32:02 shadow kernel: LIDS: insmod (3 1 inode 58956) pid 700 user (0/0) on pts0: CAP_SYS_MODULE violation: try to create module knark
For systems other than Linux, you may want to investigate disabling LKM support on systems that demand the highest level of security This is not the most elegant solution, but it may prevent a script kiddie from ruining your day
Rootkit Recovery
While we cannot provide extensive incident response or computer forensic procedures here, it is important to arm yourself with various resources that you can draw upon should that fateful phone call come What phone call you ask It will go something like this Hi, I am the admin for so-and-so I have reason to believe that your system(s) have been attacking ours How can this be, all looks normal here, you respond Your caller says check it out and get back to him So now you have that special feeling in your stomach that only an admin who has been hacked can appreciate You need to determine how and what happened Remain calm and realize that any action you take on the system may affect the electronic evidence of an intrusion Just by viewing a file, you will affect the last access timestamp A good first step in preserving evidence is to create a toolkit with statically linked binary files that have been cryptographically verified to vendor-supplied binaries The use of statically linked binary files is necessary in case attackers modify shared library files on the compromised system This should be done before an incident occurs You maintain a floppy or CD-ROM of common statically linked programs that at a minimum include ls ps su login dd du
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