.net barcode generator open source Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions in Software

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Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions
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Mbps of available bandwidth The attackers were able to launch DoS attacks against sites that had T1 connections, completely saturating the victim s network link
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Attackers amplify their DoS attack by engaging multiple sites to flood the victim s network connection Someone who only has a 56-Kbps network link can completely saturate a network with T3 (45-Mbps) access How is this possible By using other sites to amplify the DoS attack, someone with limited bandwidth can easily muster up 100 Mbps of bandwidth To successfully accomplish this feat, it is necessary for the attackers to convince the amplifying systems to send traffic to the victim s network Using amplification techniques is not always difficult, as we shall see later in this chapter As discussed throughout this book, we reiterate that ICMP traffic is dangerous While ICMP serves a valuable diagnostic purpose, ICMP is easily abused and is often the bullet used for bandwidth consumption attacks Additionally, bandwidth consumption attacks are made worse because most attackers will spoof their source address, making it extremely difficult to identify the real perpetrator
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A resource-starvation attack differs from the bandwidth consumption attack in that it focuses on consuming system resources rather than network resources Generally, this involves consuming system resources such as CPU utilization, memory, file-system quotas, or other system processes Oftentimes, attackers have legitimate access to a finite quantity of system resources However, the attackers abuse this access to consume additional resources Thus, the system or legitimate users are deprived of their share of resources Resource starvation DoS attacks generally result in an unusable resource because the system crashes, the file system becomes full, or processes become hung
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Programming flaws are failures of an application, operating system, or embedded logic chip to handle exceptional conditions These exceptional conditions normally result when
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Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks
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a user sends unintended data to the vulnerable element Many times attackers will send weird non RFC-compliant packets to a target system to determine if the network stack will handle this exception or if it will result in a kernel panic and a complete system crash For specific applications that rely on user input, attackers can send large data strings thousands of lines long If the program uses a fixed-length buffer of say, 128 bytes, the attackers could create a buffer overflow condition and crash the application Worse, the attackers could execute privileged commands, as discussed in s 5 and 7 Instances of programming flaws are also common in embedded logic chips The infamous Pentium f00f DoS attack allowed a usermode process to crash any operating system by executing the invalid instruction 0xf00fc7c8 As most of us realize, there is no such thing as a bug-free program, operating system, or even CPU Attackers also know this axiom and will take full advantage of crashing critical applications and sensitive systems Unfortunately, these attacks usually occur at the most inopportune times
Routing and DNS Attacks
A routing-based DoS attack involves attackers manipulating routing table entries to deny service to legitimate systems or networks Most routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP) v1 and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) v4 have no or very weak authentication What little authentication they do provide seldom gets used when implemented This presents a perfect scenario for attackers to alter legitimate routes, often by spoofing their source IP address, to create a DoS condition Victims of such attacks will either have their traffic routed through the attackers network or into a black hole, a network that does not exist DoS attacks on domain name servers (DNSes) are as troubling as routing-based attacks Most DNS DoS attacks involve convincing the victim server to cache bogus address information When a DNS server performs a lookup, attackers can redirect them to the site of the attackers liking, or in some cases redirect them into a black hole There have been several DNS-related DoS attacks that have rendered large sites inaccessible for an extended time
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