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Force Feeding Attachments
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The people at http://wwwmalwarecom suggested the phrase force feeding to describe the mechanism they proposed for downloading a file to a user s disk without his or her permission The essence of malwarecom s exploit is their claim that Outlook/OE ignores user input when asked to dispatch a file attachment to an email message Normally,
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when an email attachment is launched from within the mail reader, Outlook/OE prompts the user to either Open, Save To Disk, or Cancel the action Malwarecom claimed that no matter what the user selected, the attachment was written to the Windows %temp% directory (C:\Windows\temp on Win 9x and C:\temp on NT) Win 2000 s temp folders are per-user and are harder to pin down with regularity if it is cleanly installed and not upgraded Once deposited, the file was launched using a clever trick: the HTTP meta-refresh tag, which is used to redirect the browser silently and automatically to a page contained within the tag For example:
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This code embedded in a web page will bounce viewers to wwwothersitecom The content= syntax tells the browser how long to wait before redirecting Malwarecom simply pointed the meta-refresh at one of the local files it deposited via force-feeding:
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<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5; url=mhtml:file://C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\lunarmhtml">
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The lunarmhtml file, force-fed as an attachment to the original message, contained a link to a safe for scripting ActiveX control that launched a second attachment, an executable called marsexe Roundabout, but effective In the Bugtraq (http://wwwsecurityfocuscom/bugtraq/archive) thread covering this finding, at least two quite reputable security authorities disagreed on whether this phenomenon actually worked as advertised Testing by the authors of this book produced erratic results, but supported the idea that the appropriate IE security zone (see earlier) used for mail reading in Outlook/OE had to be set to Low for this to occur, and it only occurred sporadically at that We were successful at forcing an attachment to the temp directory on Win 98 SE and NT4 Workstation systems with zone security at Low on two occasions, but could not repeat this consistently The mystery of force feeding la malwarecom remains unsolved This is a bit comforting Think of the trouble this could cause in conjunction with Georgi Guninski s exploit for executing code within MS Office documents: attackers could send the Office document containing malicious code as an attachment, and then send a second message with the appropriate ActiveX tag embedded within the body of the message that pointed to the %temp% folder where the attachment gets force-fed, like it or not (Georgi actually pulls this off within the same message See the next attack) Of course, as we ve mentioned, the easy availability of free and anonymous file repository services on the Internet makes the downloading of code to local disk unnecessary By pointing malicious email messages at exploit code available on one of these services, an attacker guarantees the availability of the second part of such an attack, and it is a virtually untraceable perch at that
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Georgi demonstrates his keen eye for seemingly small problems with broad implications in this, his #9 advisory of 2000 (see http://wwwnatbg/~joro/eml-deschtml) The key issue here is Outlook/OE s propensity to create files in the TEMP directory with a known name and arbitrary content, much like the mechanism proposed by malwarecom However, by leveraging other exploits he has developed, including the Windows Help File shortcut execution vulnerability (CHM files, see http:// wwwnatbg/~joro/chm-deschtml) and the ever-useful IFRAME tag (see earlier), Georgi seems to have uncovered a consistent mechanism for delivering the goods and a way to execute the downloaded code Thus, we have given this exploit a Risk Rating of 8, among the highest of the ones we ve discussed so far, because it comes the closest to being the total package: write a file to disk, then execute it without any user input The trick is the use of the IFRAME tag within the body of an email message that references an attachment to the same message For some peculiar reason that perhaps only Georgi knows, when the IFRAME touches the attached file, it is flushed to disk It is then easy to call the file from a script embedded in the body of the very same message The file Georgi writes is a CHM file, which he has graciously configured to call Wordpadexe using an embedded shortcut command Here is a mail hacking capsule demonstrating the attack Note that the CHM file has to be prepacked using mpack (see the earlier section Mail Hacking 101 )
helo somedomaincom mail from: <mallory@attackernet> rcpt to: <hapless@victimnet> data subject: This one takes the cake! Importance: high MIME-Version: 10 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="_boundary1_" --_boundary1_ Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="_boundary2_" --_boundary2_ Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii <IFRAME align=3Dbaseline alt=3D"" =
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