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The first rule to keep in mind about NT security is that a remote intruder is nothing if not Administrator As we will continue to discuss ad nauseum, NT does not (by default) provide the capacity to execute commands remotely, and even if it did, interactive logon to NT Server is restricted to administrative accounts, severely limiting the ability of remote (non-Admin) users to do damage Thus, seasoned attackers will seek out the Administrator-equivalent accounts like sharks homing in on wounded prey through miles of ocean The first section that follows details the primary mechanism for gaining Administrator privilege: guessing passwords What You were expecting some glamorous remote exploit that magically turned NT into a pumpkin Such magic bullets, while theoretically possible, have rarely surfaced over the years We will discuss some of these at the end of this section Sorry to disappoint, but security follows the ancient maxim: the more things change, the more they stay the same In other words, lock your Administrator accounts down tight with mind-numbing password complexity
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Assuming that the NetBIOS Session service, TCP 139, is available, the most effective method for breaking into NT is good, old-fashioned, remote password guessing: attempting to connect to an enumerated share and trying username/password combinations until you find one that works Of course, to be truly efficient with password guessing, a valid list of usernames is essential We ve already seen some of the best weapons for finding user accounts, including the anonymous connection using the net use command that opens the door by establishing a null session with the target, DumpACL/DumpSec from Somarsoft Inc, and sid2user/user2sid by Evgenii Rudnyi, all discussed at length in 3 With valid account names in hand, password guessing is much more surgical Finding an appropriate share point to attack is usually trivial We have seen in 3 the ready availability to the Interprocess Communications share (IPC$) that is invariably present on systems exporting TCP 139 In addition, the default administrative shares, including ADMIN$ and [%systemdrive%]$ (for example, C$), are also almost always present to enable password guessing Of course, shares can be enumerated as discussed in 3, too With these items in hand, enterprising intruders will simply open their Network Neighborhood if NT systems are about on the local wire (or use the Find Computer tool and an IP address), then double-click the targeted machine, as shown in the following two illustrations:
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Password guessing can also be carried out via the command line, using the net use command Specifying an asterisk (*) instead of a password causes the remote system to prompt for one, as shown:
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C:\> net use \\19216820244\IPC$ * /user:Administrator Type the password for \\19216820244\IPC$: The command completed successfully
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The account specified by the /u: switch can be confusing Recall that accounts under NT/2000 are identified by SIDs, which are comprised of MACHINE\account or DOMAIN\account tuples If logging in as just Administrator fails, try using the DOMAIN\account syntax Attackers may try guessing passwords for known local accounts on stand-alone NT Servers or Workstations, rather than the global accounts on NT domain controllers Local accounts more closely reflect the security peccadilloes of individual system administrators and users, rather than the more restrictive password requirements of a central IT organization (such attempts may also be logged on the domain controller) Additionally, NT Workstation allows any user the right to log on interactively (that is, Everyone can Log on locally ), making it easier to remotely execute commands Of course, if you crack the Administrator or a Domain Admin account on the Primary Domain Controller (PDC), you have the entire domain (and any trusting domains) at your mercy Generally, it s worthwhile to identify the PDC, begin automated guessing using low-impact methods (that is, avoiding account lockout, see next), and then simultaneously scan an entire domain for easy marks (that is, systems with NULL Administrator passwords) If you intend to use the following techniques to audit systems in your company (with permission, of course), beware of account lockout when guessing at passwords using manual or automated means There s nothing like a company full of locked-out users to dissuade management from further supporting your security initiatives! To test account lockout, tools like enum ( 3) can dump the remote password policy over null session We also like to verify that the Guest account is disabled and then try guessing passwords against it Yep, even when disabled, the Guest account will indicate when lockout is attained
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