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U Chntpw Countermeasures As long as attackers can gain unrestricted physical access to a system, there are few measures that can counter this attack One partial work-around is to set SYSKEY to require intervention at system boot, either by entering a password or by supplying a floppy with the system key (see 5 for a discussion on the three modes of SYSKEY) Thus, even if an attacker resets the Administrator password, he or she would still be required to enter the SYSKEY password to boot the system Of course, attackers can still use chntpw to disable SYSKEY entirely, but they will risk crippling the target system if it is Win 2000 Also consider that Petter has made disabling SYSKEY entirely the only option with the chntpw binary we wonder what would happen if it were set to 1 rather than 0, storing the system key locally This could disable password- or floppy-mode SYSKEY protection, making this a totally useless countermeasure The source code for chntpw is available on Petter s site or skillful use of the existing chntpw in Registry editing mode would also suffice Absent the incomplete protection provided by password- or floppy-mode SYSKEY, you must rely on traditional security best practices, such as making sure critical systems are physically secure and setting BIOS passwords or disabling floppy access to the system
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Deleting the SAM Blanks the Administrator Password
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On July 25, 1999, James J Grace and Thomas S V Bartlett III released a stunning paper describing how to delete the Administrator password by booting to an alternative OS and deleting the SAM file (see http://wwwdeepquestpf/win32/win2k_efstxt) Granted unsupervised physical access to a machine and the availability of tools to write to NTFS volumes if needed (for example, NTFSDOS Pro from http://wwwsysinternalscom), this technique basically made it trivial to bypass all local security on NT/2000 Although the technique described in the paper mentions installation of a second copy of either NT or 2000 alongside the original, this is not necessary if the attacker is interested solely in nullifying the Administrator account password Simply deleting the SAM works straightaway There are serious implications of this attack for the Encrypting File System, explained in the next section Win 2000 domain controllers are not vulnerable to having the SAM deleted because they do not keep password hashes in the SAM However, Grace and Bartlett s paper describes a mechanism for achieving essentially the same result on domain controllers by installing a second copy of Win 2000
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U Stopping Offline SAM Deletion method to partially blunt an attack of this naAs discussed previously, the only OS-level
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ture is to configure Win 2000 to boot in SYSKEY password- or floppy-required mode Some other effective ways to stop offline password attacks are to keep servers physically secure, to remove or disable bootable removable media drives, or to set a BIOS password that must be entered before the system can be bootstrapped We recommend using all of these mechanisms
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The Encrypting File System (EFS)
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One of the major security-related centerpieces of Win 2000 is the Encrypting File System (EFS) EFS is a public key cryptography-based system for transparently encrypting on-disk data in real time so that attackers cannot access it without the proper key Microsoft has produced a white paper that discusses the details of EFS operation, available at http://wwwmicrosoftcom/windows2000/library/howitworks/security/encryptasp In brief, EFS can encrypt a file or folder with a fast, symmetric, encryption algorithm using a randomly generated file encryption key (FEK) specific to that file or folder The initial release of EFS uses the Extended Data Encryption Standard (DESX) as the encryption algorithm The randomly generated file encryption key is then itself encrypted with one or more public keys, including those of the user (each user under Win 2000 receives a public/private key pair) and a key recovery agent (RA) These encrypted values are stored as attributes of the file Key recovery is implemented in case employees who have encrypted some sensitive data leave an organization or their encryption keys are lost, for example To prevent unrecoverable loss of the encrypted data, Win 2000 mandates the existence of a data recovery agent for EFS EFS will not work without a recovery agent Because the FEK is completely independent of a user s public/private key pair, a recovery agent may decrypt the file s contents without compromising the user s private key The default data recovery agent for a system is the local administrator account Although EFS can be useful in many situations, it probably doesn t apply to multiple users of the same workstation who may want to protect files from one another That s what NTFS file system access control lists (ACLs) are for Rather, Microsoft positions EFS as a layer of protection against attacks where NTFS is circumvented, such as by booting to alternative OSes and using third-party tools to access a hard drive, or for files stored on remote servers In fact, Microsoft s white paper on EFS specifically claims that EFS particularly addresses security concerns raised by tools available on other operating systems that allow users to physically access files from an NTFS volume without an access check We will see how this claim stacks up during our discussion of the next vulnerability EFS Best Practices EFS is available for any file or folder on the Properties screen under the General tab, Advanced button In addition, the command-line cipher tool can be used to encrypt and decrypt files Type cipher / at a command prompt to see how
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