Hacking Windows 2000
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Although files can be encrypted individually, Microsoft s EFS white paper recommends encrypting at the folder level because attempted manipulation of individually encrypted files occurs via many methods and can inadvertently leave them in a plaintext state Also, encrypted files cannot be compressed Under the Win 2000 help on EFS, look up the best practices topic for some more good tips on using EFS wisely
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Be careful when moving EFS-encrypted files Although standard backup mechanisms (for example, ntbackupexe) will copy encrypted items as-is, the normal copy command reads files in a way that is transparently decrypted by EFS If the destination is a non-NTFS 50 partition, files will be left in plaintext state on the destination volume If the destination is a remote NTFS 50 partition, the file will be encrypted but will not be identical to the original the remote copy will be encrypted with a new FEK Note that this means EFS only protects the file while it is stored on disk; files are plaintext while they traverse the network wire
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Nullifying the EFS Recovery Agent Key
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Continuing our previous discussion of Grace and Bartlett s paper at http:// wwwdeepquestpf/win32/win2k_efstxt, the ability to overwrite the Administrator account password takes on a more serious scope once it is understood that Administrator is the default key recovery agent (RA) As Grace and Bartlett further describe in this paper, once successfully logged in to a system with the blank Administrator password, EFS-encrypted files are decrypted as they are opened, since the Administrator can transparently access the FEK using his or her recovery key Why does this work Recall how EFS works: the randomly generated file encryption key (which can decrypt the file) is itself encrypted by other keys, and these encrypted values are stored as attributes of the file The FEK encrypted with the user s public key (every user under 2000 receives a public/private key pair) is stored in an attribute called the Data Decipher Field (DDF) associated with the file When the user accesses the file, his or her private key decrypts the DDF, exposing the FEK, which then decrypts the file The value resulting from the encryption of the FEK with the recovery agent s key is stored in an attribute called the Data Recovery Field (DRF) Thus, if the local Administrator is the defined recovery agent (which it is by default), then anyone who attains Administrator on this system is able to decrypt the DRF with his or her private key, revealing the FEK, which can then decrypt the EFS-protected file
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Keys U Export Recovery to Graceand Store Them Securelythat EFS could be defeated in Microsoft s response and Bartlett s paper conceded
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Defeating Recovery Agent Delegation But wait what if the recovery agent is delegated to parties other than the Administrator Grace and Bartlett defeated this countermeasure by planting a service to run at startup that resets the password for any account defined as a recovery agent Of course, an attacker doesn t have to focus exclusively on the recovery agent, it just happens to be the easiest way to access all of the EFS-encrypted files on disk Another way to circumvent a delegated recovery agent is to simply masquerade as the user who encrypted the file Using chntpw (see earlier), any user s account password can be reset via offline attack An attacker could then log in as the user and decrypt the DDF transparently with the user s private key, unlocking the FEK and decrypting the file The data recovery agent s private key is not required
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this way, but characteristically attempted to downplay the risks by asserting that the attack would fail if proper EFS recovery key handling practices were followed (see http://wwwmicrosoftcom/technet/security/analefsasp) Unfortunately, the description of the export process supplied by Microsoft on this page is outdated, and the EFS help files don t specify how to do it either To export the recovery agent(s) certificates on stand-alone systems, open the local Group Policy object (gpeditmsc), browse to the Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies\Encrypted Data Recovery Agents node, right-click on the recovery agent listed in the right pane (usually, this is Administrator), and select All Tasks | Export This is shown next:
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A wizard will run, prompting for various pieces of information before the key can be exported To back up the recovery agent key, you must export the private key along with the certificate, and we recommend enabling strong protection (requires a password)