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Performing String Searches
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After you are certain that your string searches will be thorough by decompressing files and unencrypting everything you can, it is time to choose your string search criteria wisely and begin searching Since we cover string searching again in 12, we merely mention here that you must pick the exact words that provide useful results (again, knowing the totality of circumstances is critical) For example, if you are investigating an employee who is allegedly skimming money via expense vouchers, and your string search on his 40GB drive yields 20GB of hits with your string search criteria, either you have an unbelievable amount of information to use against the subject or your string search needs to have new criteria The educated guess is that your string search did not adequately minimize the focus of your investigation In this section, we introduce a few keyword search applications out of the myriad products and commands that exist grep, EnCase, and Autopsy Danny Mares makes string search utilities as well, and we personally use DTSEARCH, both of which are covered in 12
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Performing String Searches with Grep
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The standard Unix tool grep is one of the most useful forensic tools in our arsenal Since dtsearch does not run on Unix, nor does EnCase, we offer grep as a powerful, highly effective, and free alternative when working within a Unix environment If you desire to search a hard drive or partition on a hard drive for a specific string, you simply use the following command line (using GNU grep):
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grep -a -B20 -A20 "1765123" /dev/hda1 > stringsearchresults
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The above command line searches the first partition of device /dev/hda, looking for the string 1765123 The -a option tells the grep command to process the binary file (device) as if it were a text file The -B20 outputs 20 lines of text before the string you searched for, and the -A20 denotes that you are capturing 20 lines after the string you searched for The > redirects the output of the grep command to a file called stringsearchresults , which can be reviewed for evidence We commonly create a file containing all the string search criteria, and use grep with the -f option, as shown here:
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grep -a -i -B5 -A5 -f <inputfile> /dev/hda1 > stringsearch2results
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The -i option tells the grep command to ignore case, which is very important The grep command is case sensitive, and you likely will want to ignore case when you perform string searches
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Data Analysis Techniques
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String searches are sometimes our first step in an investigation For example, recently we responded to an incident where a web application was successfully compromised by an attacker The client wanted our team to (in priority order): 1 Identify all modes of entry used by the attackers 2 Determine the full breadth of the compromise 3 Determine upstream and downstream victims by IP address 4 Determine what, if any, data was pilfered by unauthorized attackers 5 Develop a plan to initiate countermeasures to prevent further compromise Based on these priorities, once we collected the data, we immediately scanned the web logs for the following strings in an effort to minimize the data we would need to review to identify known-compromised hosts: M I I I I I I I I L cmdexe /scripts/// vti_bin msadc iishelp iisadmin vti_pvt asa login samples
We also searched for known hostile IP addresses Armed with this string search criteria, we rapidly found additional collection points We generally find that forensic analysis is an iterative process You pass through the data collected repeatedly, in a constant effort to scale down to the truly relevant and most compelling evidence String searching is key to whittling down the data that you need to review
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