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A malicious attacker gains control of the router and modifies the static routes The malicious attacker does not save this change to NVRAM As long as the router is not rebooted, the attacker s changes remain in effect Thus, if the system administrator were to power down the router and later examine the configuration, no trace of the attacker would be found To avoid this situation, save the configuration that is in RAM as well as the configuration in NVRAM
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Checking Interface Configurations
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Information about the configuration of each of the router s interfaces is available via the show ip interface command While this information is also available within the configuration file, this command is useful because it gives a lot of information in an easy-to-read format
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cisco_router#show ip interface Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 1002244/24 Broadcast address is 255255255255 Address determined by non-volatile memory MTU is 1500 bytes Helper address is not set Directed broadcast forwarding is disabled Multicast reserved groups joined: 224009 Outgoing access list is not set Inbound access list is not set Proxy ARP is disabled Security level is default Split horizon is enabled ICMP redirects are always sent ICMP unreachables are always sent ICMP mask replies are never sent IP fast switching is enabled IP fast switching on the same interface is disabled IP multicast fast switching is disabled Router Discovery is disabled IP output packet accounting is disabled IP access violation accounting is disabled TCP/IP header compression is disabled Probe proxy name replies are disabled
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Investigating Routers
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Gateway Discovery is disabled Policy routing is disabled Network address translation is disabled
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Viewing the ARP Cache
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Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps IP addresses and media access control (MAC) addresses Unlike IP addresses (which are Network layer addresses), MAC addresses are physical addresses (layer 2 of the OSI model) and are not routed outside broadcast domains Routers store the MAC addresses of any device on the local broadcast domain, along with its IP address, in the ARP cache Packets originating on remote networks display the MAC address of the last router traversed Attackers occasionally spoof IP or MAC addresses to circumvent security controls, such as access control lists (ACLs), firewall rules, or switch port assignments Accordingly, the ARP cache can be useful when investigating attacks of these types And since it is easy to destroy and easy to save, you might as well save the information Use the show ip arp command to view the ARP cache
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cisco_router#show ip arp Protocol Address Age (min) Hardware Addr Type Interface Internet 172161253 - 00107bf91d81 ARPA Ethernet1 Internet 100271 0 00104bedd708 ARPA Ethernet0 Internet 1002244 - 00107bf91d80 ARPA Ethernet0
FINDING THE PROOF
Now that you ve saved most of the evidence you need, what s the next step The answer, of course, is it depends The next step depends on the type of incident suspected, based on your initial investigation Here, we will look at responses for several incident types involving routers, including how to identify corroborating evidence We categorize the types of incidents that involve routers as follows: M I I L Direct compromise Routing table manipulation Theft of information Denial of service
Handling Direct-Compromise Incidents
Direct compromise of the router is any incident where an attacker gains interactive or privileged access to the router Direct compromise provides the attacker with control of the router and access to the data stored on the router
Incident Response & Computer Forensics
Administrative access to the router is available in a surprisingly large number of ways, including telnet, console, SSH, web, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SNMP), modem, and TFTP access Interactive access, even when not privileged, is dangerous because of the functionality of the router Anyone with interactive access can use the router to identify and compromise other hosts via available router clients such as ping and telnet This is especially dangerous because the router is often allowed access to internal networks, even though a firewall may block all other access to internal networks
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