Collecting Network-based Evidence in Software

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Collecting Network-based Evidence
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If the SPAN port is already in use when you re ready to install your network monitor, you have two choices: you can install a hub that matches the data rate of the switch (10 Mb/second or 100 Mb/second) or you can use an Ethernet tap If you choose the former, use a single-rate hub, not one that is capable of both 10 and 100 Mb/second On most dual-rate hubs, the data rates use different backplanes, and traffic on one backplane usually does not pass to the other reliably If you use an Ethernet tap, be sure that your listening interface cannot transmit; using taps in a full-duplex environment may cause havoc Finisar (http://wwwfinisarcom) sells reliable taps for a variety of media types It is also important to place the surveillance system in a physically secure location In general, physical access means logical access In other words, anyone who can physically access your surveillance machine can circumvent any software controls you have on it (passwords, file access permissions, and so on) When you re deploying a system to perform network surveillance, you need to secure the system in a locked room where only a select number of trusted employees can gain access Remember the chain of custody Secure the system as you normally would, including unbinding unnecessary protocols (such as NetBIOS and IPX) and removing all network services When you issue a netstat command, there should not be any applications or daemons listening on the TCP or UDP ports Refer to 3 for more information about hardening systems The operating system should be capable of communicating over IP and nothing else
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When performing network monitoring, you cannot merely start tcpdump and walk away from the console You ll want to check to make sure the disk isn t filling rapidly, verify that the packet capturing program is executing appropriately, and see what sort of load the network monitoring is carrying First, use the df command to check the status of the partitions:
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monitor# df -h Filesystem Size /dev/ad0s1a 650M /dev/ad0s1f 31M /dev/ad0s1e 69G procfs 40K Used 452M 40K 66M 40K Avail Capacity 145M 76% 29M 0% 66G 2% 0B 100% Mounted on / /tmp /var /proc
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This output from the df command shows our /var partition has 66MB of data and 66GB of free space Next, we use the top command to check the load on the network monitor:
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last pid: 68409; load averages: 000, 000, 000 up 26+20:28:09 09:29:13 18 processes: 1 running, 17 sleeping CPU states: % user, % nice, % system, % interrupt, % idle Mem: 3584K Active, 6756K Inact, 11M Wired, 3500K Cache, 6080K Buf, 1996K Free Swap: 96M Total, 2028K Used, 94M Free, 2% Inuse
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PID USERNAME PRI NICE SIZE 68 root 2 0 944K 75 root 10 0 996K 62570 root 4 0 3016K 77 root 2 0 2740K 68371 root 2 0 2880K 68373 root 18 0 1556K 68409 root 29 0 1896K 68372 username 10 0 1056K
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RES STATE TIME WCPU 328K select 11:44 000% 220K nanslp 0:34 000% 180K bpf 0:20 000% 292K select 0:06 000% 1552K select 0:00 000% 1024K pause 0:00 000% 1032K RUN 0:00 000% 836K wait 0:00 000%
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CPU COMMAND 000% syslogd 000% cron 000% tcpdump 000% sshd 000% sshd 000% csh 000% top 000% bash
This output shows that the network monitor isn t even breaking a sweat High numbers for the load averages denote danger; here, we see zeros, which show virtually no load However, if your disk is filling rapidly, beyond the means of your hardware, you may need to alter the sort of data you collect, as described in the Filtering Full-Content Data section later in this chapter For more information about troubleshooting performance issues on FreeBSD, see 18 of Absolute BSD: The Ultimate Guide to FreeBSD, by Michael Lucas (No Starch Press, 2002)
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