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Lamps and Lighting Systems
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The installation, troubleshooting, and repair of lighting systems are some of the most common tasks of an electrician Familiarity with the basic types of lamps and lighting xtures and with systems for controlling lighting is essential for any electrician or apprentice The National Electric Code (NEC) classi es lamps as incandescent or electric discharge Incandescent lamps have a lament that glows white-hot Lamps that produce light without a lament are classi ed as electric discharge lamps
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Fluorescent lamps Mercury vapor lamps Metal halide lamps Some other types of lamps
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are classi ed as discharge types Electric discharge lamps operate by passing current through a gas- lled envelope In some cases, they may have a lament to get started
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An incandescent lamp has a lament made of tungsten When the tungsten becomes white hot, or incandescent, it gives off light and heat Incandescent lamp laments are available in a number of sizes and shapes See Figure 5-1 Incandescent lamps differ in their output, bases, wattage, and life expectancy
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Filament designations C-1 C-2V C-5 C-6 C-7 C-11 C-9 2CC-6 2CC-8 C-8 C-7A C-13 C-13B C-13D C-17 C-22 CC-2V CC-13 CC-11 CC-6 CC-8
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Filament designations consist of a letter or letters to indicate whether the wire is straight or coiled, and an arbitrary number sometimes followed by a letter to indicate the arrangement of the filament on the supports Prefix letters include: S (straight) wire is straight or slightly corrugated; C (coil) wire is wound into a helical coil or it may be deeply fluted; CC (coiled coil) wire is wound into a helical coil and this coiled wire again wound into a helical coil Some of the more commonly used types of filament arrangements are illustrated Bulb shapes and bulb sizes A B BT
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B-61/2 B-101/2 BT-25 BT-37
FIGURE 5-1 Incandescent lamp filaments
LAMP AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS
FIGURE 5-2 Electromagnetic spectrum
Most incandescent lamp output is in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum See Figure 5-2 This means that larger amounts of light are available with incandescent lamps than with other light sources See Figure 5-3 Operation of light sources Colors present and amount of light available Energy Sunlight Merco-matic Ballasted mercury Fluorescent lamps Incandescent lamps Angstroms 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 Violet Blue Green Yellow Red
FIGURE 5-3 Amount of light available from the sun and different types of lamps
One type of incandescent lamp that has a very high output is the quartz bulb This bulb has a lament that glows inside a quartz tube It operates at extremely high temperatures The main advantage of the quartz bulb is its constant light output over its entire operating life Quartz bulbs are used in automobile headlights and for dome lights inside a car A quartz bulb cannot be touched when hot or cold because the quartz bulb will absorb any oil on the hand, and its surface will be damaged So, remember to use gloves when handling quartz bulbs
Most incandescent lamps for home use have a threaded base that is referred to as the Edison base The threads on the base screw into matching threads on a socket A base of the same shape but much larger in diameter is called a mogul base It is usually found on bulbs that have high wattage capacity, draw high currents, and operate on 220 volts or higher Mogul bases are also used on some mercury vapor lamps Some incandescent lamps have a bayonet base: two pins protruding on opposite sides of a smooth metal base The socket into which bayonet-base lamps t has a spring-metal contact at the bottom and two L-shaped channels on opposite sides of the socket wall that correlate to the pins on the lamp The lamp is inserted by sliding the pins into the channels as far as they will go, which includes pushing against the spring-metal contact, and rotating one quarter turn With this action, the pins then slide into the horizontal leg of the L-shaped channel, holding the lamp rmly against the spring-metal contact Figure 5-4 shows various bases, including miniature and other types of lamps Each is designed to make good electrical contact and provide support for the bulb