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Hacking Exposed Windows 2000: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
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LM/NTLM challenge/response authentication
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Homogenous Windows 2000 environments can use the built-in Kerberos v5 protocol that is new in Windows 2000 (we discuss Windows 2000 Kerberos in 16) However, Windows 2000 is completely backward compatible with LM, NTLM, and NTLMv2 and will downgrade to the appropriate authentication protocol if Kerberos cannot be negotiated Kerberos will only be used if both client and server support it, both machines are referenced by their DNS or machine name (not IPaddress), and both the client and server belong to the same forest (unless a third-party Kerberos implementation is used) Table 2-6 presents a quick summary of NT/2000 LAN oriented authentication mechanisms For simplicity s sake, we have purposely left out of this discussion consideration of Microsoft s Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP), which is used for remote access, Web-based authentication, as well as other protocols used by
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The Windows 2000 Security Architecture from the Hacker s Perspective
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Comments WFW and Windows 9x must use this, but it is susceptible to eavesdropping attacks; Dsclient allows Windows 9x to use NTLM Much more robust security than LANMan Improved security over NTLM, recommended for heterogeneous NT4/2000 environments Longer track record security-wise, but only used if end-to-end Windows 2000 and intra-forest
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NT4 SP3, Windows 2000 NT4 post-SP4, Windows 2000 Windows 2000 only
Kerberos
Table 2-6
Windows LAN-oriented authentication protocols
Windows in different situations Although these protocols are slightly different from what we have described so far, they still depend on the four core protocols described in Table 2-6, which are used in some form or another to authenticate all network access
AUDITING
We ve talked a lot about authentication and access control so far, but the Windows NT/2000 security subsystem can do more than simply grant or deny access to resources It can also audit such access The Windows 2000 audit policy, that is, which events to record, is defined via the Security Policy interface (see 16) The audit policy is stored in the Local Security Authority Subsystem (LSASS; see Figure 2-1), which passes it to the Security Reference Monitor (SRM) at bootup and whenever it changes The SRM works in concert with the Windows 2000 Object Manager to generate audit records and send them to LSASS LSASS adds relevant details (the account SID performing the access, and so on) and writes them to the Event Log, which in turn records them in the Security Log If auditing is set for an object, a System Access Control List (SACL) is assigned to the object The SACL defines which operations by which users should be logged in the security audit log Both successful and unsuccessful attempts can be audited For Windows 2000 systems, we recommend that the system audit policy be set to the most aggressive settings (auditing is disabled by default) That is, enable audit of success/failure for all of the Windows 2000 events except process tracking, as shown in Figure 2-5
Hacking Exposed Windows 2000: Network Security Secrets & Solutions
Figure 2-5
Recommended Windows 2000 audit settings
Note that enabling auditing of object access does not actually enable auditing of all object access; it only enables the potential for object access to be audited Auditing must still be specified on each individual object On Windows 2000 domain controllers, heavy auditing of directory access may incur a performance penalty Make sure to tailor your audit settings to the specific role of the system in question
SUMMARY
Here is a list of some of the important points we have covered in this chapter: w All access to Windows 2000 is authenticated (even if it is as the Everyone identity), and an access token is built for all successfully authenticated accounts This token is used to authorize all subsequent access to resources on the system by the Security Reference Monitor (SRM) To date, no one has publicly disclosed a technique for defeating this architecture, other than running software in kernel mode, where the SRM operates The Local Administrator account is one of the juiciest targets on a Windows 2000 system because it is one of the most powerful accounts All other accounts have very limited privileges relative to the Administrator Compromise of the Administrator is thus almost always the ultimate goal of an attacker The Administrators group is the juiciest target on a local Windows 2000 system, because members of this group inherit Administrator-equivalent privileges Domain Admins and Enterprise Admins are the juiciest targets
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