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CHAPTER 10 INTROSPECTION
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Note Objective-C s runtime system is designed to be completely transparent. Unlike Java s
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java.lang.ClassLoader the internals of which are shrouded in secrecy the functions by which Objective-C classes are created, registered, modified, instantiated, and sent messages are all directly available through the Objective-C runtime API. Advanced programmers who want to implement scripting languages, or dynamically define and augment classes at runtime, have unfettered access to the same APIs used by the Cocoa frameworks.
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Table 10-4 lists a few functions that are useful in exploring information about classes. The first four functions in the table translate names into Class or Protocol pointers, and back again. This is how you could obtain a Class reference from nothing but a name. The second four functions are just wrappers that perform the same functions, taking and returning Objective-C string objects. The wrapper function simply calls one of the first four, converting the strings for you. Finally the class_getSuperclass(Class) function returns a class s superclass reference, or Nil if the class is the root class. It s equivalent to sending the -superclass message to an object. Table 10-4. Functions for Inspecting Classes
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objc_getClass(const char*) class_getName(Class) objc_getProtocol(const char*) protocol_getName(Protocol) NSClassFromString(NSString *name) NSStringFromClass(Class) NSProtocolFromString(NSString *name) NSStringFromProtocol(Protocol*) class_getSuperclass(Class)
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Class with that name The name of the Class Protocol with that name The name of the Protocol Class with that name The name of the Class Protocol with that name The name of the Protocol Superclass of Class
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Listing 10-5 shows how to iterate through the classes an object inherits.
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CHAPTER 10 INTROSPECTION
Listin g 10-5. Walking Up the List of Superclasses
Java Class objClass = object.getClass(); while (objClass!=null) { objClass = objClass.getSuperclass(); } Objective-C Class class = [object class]; while (class!=Nil) { class = class_getSuperclass(class); }
Note Objective-C defines the Nil constant for use with Class pointers. Use Nil with Class pointers exactly as
you would use nil with object pointers.
Exploring Protocols
Formal protocols (interfaces) are defined separately from classes. You may want to know what protocols a class conforms to, or the methods that a protocol declares. The functions in Table 10-5 will identify the protocols that a class conforms to, and let you explore those protocols. If you just want to know if an object conforms to a specific protocol, use the -[NSObject conformsToProtocol:] method described earlier. Table 10-5. Protocol Introspection Functions
Fun ctio n
objc_getProtocol(const char*) NSProtocolFromString(NSString*)
Return s
The protocol with that name Same as objc_getProtocol, but accepts an Objective-C string object The list of protocols the class conforms to YES if the protocol conforms to another protocol The name of the protocol YES if the protocols are equivalent
class_copyProtocolList(Class,unsigned int*) protocol_conformsToProtocol(Protocol*,Protocol*) protocol_getName(Protocol*) protocol_isEqual(Protocol*,Protocol*)
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CHAPTER 10 INTROSPECTION
class_copyProtocolList returns a NULL-terminated C array of Protocol pointers. This block of memory must be released using the free(void*) function when you are finished with it. The number of protocols in the array is returned in the unsigned integer located at the address passed in the second parameter. If that parameter is NULL, no count is returned. You can use either the returned count or the NULL-terminating pointer to determine the length of the list, as shown in Listing 10-6.
Listin g 10-6. Listing the Protocols of a Class
unsigned int protocolCount; Protocol **protocols = class_copyProtocolList(class,&protocolCount); NSMutableString *list = [NSMutableString new]; unsigned int i; for (i=0; i<protocolCount; i++) { Protocol *p = protocols[i]; if (i!=0) [list appendString:@", "]; [list appendFormat:@"%s",protocol_getName(p)]; } if (protocolCount!=0) NSLog(@"Class %s implements the protocols: %@",class_getName(class),list); free(protocols); Points of interest in Listing 10-6: the name returned by protocol_getName and class_getName are C strings, formatted using the %s format specifier. The list variable is a string object, formatted using %@. Protocol is a structure type, not an opaque pointer type like Class and Method. As such, references are declared as pointers to Protocol (Protocol*), rather than just the type (Class, Method). Confusing, isn t it
Exploring Methods
I ve already shown you how to easily determine if an object implements a specific method. Using the functions in Table 10-6 you can obtain a list of all of the methods a class implements. From a Method value you can get a method s name, selector, implementation address, and parameter information. Table 10-6. Common Method Introspection Functions
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