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In 1989, the CD-ROM Yellow Book standard was augmented with an updated format called CD-ROM XA (eXtended Architecture) XA was based on ideas developed for CD-i, including the interleaving of data, graphics, and ADPCM compressed audio CD-ROM XA required newer hardware to read the mixed sector types on the disc and to take advantage of the interleaved streams Most CD-ROM drives are now XA-compatible, but the interleaving features are almost never used CD-ROM XA also introduced the so-called bridge disc, which is a type of disc with extra information that can be used in a CD-i player or a computer with a CD-ROM XA drive The Orange Book standard was developed in 1990 to support magnetooptical (MO) and write-once (WO) technology MO has the advantage of being rewritable but is incompatible with standard CD drives and has remained expensive CD-WO has been largely superseded by Orange Book Part II, recordable CD (CD-R) CD-R can only be written to once, which is sufficient for many uses The Orange Book also added multisession capabilities to allow CDs to be written to in chunks across different recording sessions Recordable technology revolutionized CD-ROM production by enabling developers to create fully functional CDs for testing and for submission to disc replicators As prices have dropped, CD-R also has become popular for business and even personal archiving Although tape backup systems are cheaper, the familiarity of CD and the widespread availability of CD-ROM drives have made CD-R very appealing Tape also lacks the quick random access of CD-R Around 1990, music CD singles became popular in Japan, and the format subsequently was adopted for use with Sony s Data Discman The 8centimeter discs had a capacity of 200 megabytes and commonly held modified CD-ROM XA applications The Data Discman and its cousin the Bookman had piddling success outside Japan Sony also developed the portable MMCD player based on an Intel 286 processor and an LCD display, which it concentrated on to the exclusion of CD-i However, as with CD-i, heavy marketing failed to make the MMCD a success, and Sony finally gave up around 1994 The name was later reused for Sony s proto-DVD format Kodak and Philips developed the Photo CD format in 1992, based on the CD-ROM XA and Orange Book standards Photo CDs are bridge discs that hold up to one hundred 35-mm photographs written in one or more sessions Special Photo CD players and CD-i players can show the pictures on a television, but the concept never appealed much to home photographers Nevertheless, since multisession CD-ROM XA drives can read Photo CDs, the format is popular for professional photo production work and for stock photography libraries In 1991, Sony introduced the 8-cm MiniDisc, a portable music format based on the rewritable Orange Book s MO standard and using Sony s
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ATRAC compression The poor audio quality of MiniDisc earned it a bad reputation, but it has since been improved considerably and is now in over 10 percent of Japanese households, accounting for 30 percent of prerecorded music sales in Japan MiniDisc had less success in other countries, and even the recent resurgence of support may be too late to save it if a recordable 8-cm DVD-Audio standard is developed MPEG-1 video from a CD was demonstrated by Philips and Sony on their CD-i system in 1991 About 50 movies were released in CD-i Digital Video format before a standardized version appeared as Video CD (VCD) in 1993, based on proposals by JVC, Sony, and Philips and documented as the White Book specification Not to be confused with CD-Video (CDV), Video CD uses MPEG-1 compression to store 74 minutes of near-VHS-quality audio and video on a CD-ROM XA bridge disc Philips developed a $200 Video CD addon for its CD-i players Hardware and software were made available for computers to play Video CDs Video CD 20 was finalized in 1994 The format has done very well in countries where VHS was not well established Over 6 million Video CD players were sold in China alone in 1996 By 1994, drive speeds and resulting data transfer rates had risen to quadruple speed Once again, the price for the new drives was around $1000 Two years later, 8X CD-ROM drives appeared, but the introductory price was down to $400 Later the same year, 12X drives appeared for around $250 Tests began to show that in many cases data transfer rates were not much better than those of 6X drives because the high speeds increased errors and required repeated reads After CD-ROM based multimedia reached mass-market potential, music artists began to look for ways to add multimedia to their music The idea was to create a CD that would play in a music player but also include software for use on a computer The various techniques are grouped under the moniker of Enhanced CD The first attempts in the late 1980s used mixed-mode CDs that put computer data on the first track and music on the remaining tracks The downside was that some CD players attempted to play the computer data as if it were music, producing noise that could damage speakers Stickers on CDs warning of potential equipment damage were not felt to be a good way to increase sales, so more ingenious methods were pursued A trick of placing the computer data at index zero (in the pregap area before the beginning of the music) worked well with most players, which begin playing music at index one It was still possible to use the rewind feature on some players to back up into the data, so clever implementations included an audio message warning the listener to stop the player before reaching the noise Since CD-ROM drives begin at index zero, they are able to read the computer data That is, they were until Microsoft released a new SCSI CD-ROM driver that began reading at index 1, thus skipping over the data intended for the computer
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