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Pegs and Holes: Understanding Aspect Ratios
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The standard television picture is restricted to a specific shape: a third again wider than it is high This aspect ratio is designated as 4:3, or 4 units wide by 3 units high, also expressed as 13316 This rectangular shape is a fundamental part of the NTSC and PAL television systems it cannot be changed without redefining the standards17
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There is no special meaning to the numbers 4 and 3 They are simply the smallest whole numbers that can be used to represent the ratio of width to height An aspect ratio of 12:9 is the same as 4:3 This also can be normalized to a height of 1, but the width becomes the repeating fraction 133333 , which is why the 4:3 notation is generally used For comparison purposes, it is useful to use the normalized format of 133:1 or 133 for short
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17 The next generation of television known as HDTV, ATV, DTV, etc has a 178 (16:9) picture that is much wider than current television However, the new digital format is incompatible with existing standard recording and display equipment
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The problem is that movies are wider than television screens Most movies are 185 (about 55:3) Extrawide movies in Panavision or Cinemascope format are around 235 (about 7:3) Thus, the trick is to somehow fit a wide movie shape into a not-so-wide television shape (Figure 39) Fitting a movie into television is like the old conundrum of putting a square peg in a round hole, but in this case it is a rectangular peg Consider a peg that is twice as wide as a square hole (Figure 310) There are essentially three ways to get the peg in the hole: 1 Shrink the peg to half its original size or make the hole twice as big (Figure 311) 2 Slice off part of the peg (Figure 312) 3 Squeeze the sides of the peg until it is the same shape as the hole (Figure 313) Now, think of the peg as a movie and the hole as a TV The first two pegand-hole solutions are used commonly to show movies on television Quite often you will see horizontal black bars at the top and bottom of the picture
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Figure 39 TV shape versus movie shape
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Figure 310 Peg and hole
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Figure 311 Shrink the peg
Figure 312 Slice the peg
Figure 313 Squeeze the peg
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This means that the width of the movie shape has been matched to the width of the TV shape, leaving a gap at the top and the bottom This is called letterboxing It does not refer to postal pugilism but rather to the process of putting the movie in a black box with a hole the shape of a standard paper envelope The black bars are called mattes At other times you might see the words This presentation has been formatted for television at the beginning of a movie This indicates that a pan and scan process has been used, where a TV-shaped window over the film image is moved from side to side or up and down or is zoomed in and out (Figures 314 and 315) This process is more complicated than just chopping off a little from each side; sometimes the important part of the picture is all on one side or mostly on the other side, and sometimes there is more picture on the film above or below what is shown in the theater, so the artist who transfers the movie to video must determine for every scene how much of each side should be chopped off or how much additional picture from above or below should be included in order to preserve the action and story line For the past 20 years or so, most films have been shot flat, sometimes called soft matte The cinematographer has two rectangles in the viewfinder, one for 185 (or wider) and one for 4:3 (see Figure 313) He or she composes the shots to look good in the 185 rectangle while making sure that no crew, equipment, or raw set edges are visible above or below in the 4:3 area For presentation in the theater, a theatrical matte is used to mask off the top and bottom either when the film is printed or with an aperture
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