vb.net create barcode image Combinations of Output Formats and Video Transfersa in Software

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This may be clearer in the form of Table 32 All these variations are possible, but only a few of them are regularly used, such as 1a, 2a, 3a, and 4c The automatic pan and scan feature of DVD
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TABLE 32 Combinations of Output Formats and Video Transfersa
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4:3 Original Stored in 4:3 Full frame (1) Direct transfer (a) P&S transfer from full frame (a)
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16:9 Original Stored in 4:3 n/a Stored in 16:9 n/a
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Non-16:9 Original Stored in 4:3 n/a Stored in 16:9 n/a
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Pan and scan (2)
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P&S transfer (a)
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Auto P&S by player on P&S transfer (b2) or on LB transfer (b3) Auto LB by player on P&S transfer (b2) or on LB transfer (b3) P&S transfer to anamorphic (b) or LB transfer to anamorphic (c)
Letterbox (3)
LB transfer from inside soft matte (a)
LB transfer (a)
Auto LB by player (b1)
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Anamorphic (4)
Anamorphic transfer from 16:9 soft matte (a)
Anamorphic transfer (a)
Labels in parentheses refer to the outline in text
DVD Technology Primer
players is rarely used; in many cases, both a 4:3 pan and scan version and a widescreen letterbox version will be included on a single disc In other cases, where a new video transfer is deemed too expensive or the original film is no longer available, whatever existing transfer is available will be used, such as 4:3 pan and scan or 4:3 letterbox
The Pin-Striped TV: Interlaced versus Progressive Scanning
One of the biggest problems facing early television designers was displaying images fast enough to achieve a smooth illusion of motion Early video hardware was simply not fast enough to provide the required flicker fusion frequency of around 50 or 60 frames per second The ingenious expedient solution was to cut the amount of information in half by alternately transmitting every other line of the picture (Figure 324) The engineers counted on the persistence of the phosphors in the television tube to make the two pictures blur into one26 For a 525-line signal, first the 262 (and a half) odd lines are sent and displayed, followed by the 262 (and a half) even lines This is called interlaced scanning Each half of a frame is called a field For the NTSC system, 60 fields are displayed per second, resulting in a rate of 30 frames per second There are 480 active lines of video, meaning that only 240 lines are visible at a time For the PAL and SECAM systems, there are 50 fields per second, resulting in a rate of 25 frames per second There are 576 active lines out of a total of 625, giving 288 lines per field The alternative approach, progressive scanning, displays every line of a complete frame in one sweep Progressive scanning requires twice the frequency in order to achieve the same refresh rate Progressive scan monitors are more expensive and generally are used for computers High-definition television (HDTV) also includes progressive scanning Progressive scan provides a superior picture, overcoming many disadvantages of interlaced scanning In interlaced scanning, small details, especially thin horizontal lines, appear only in every other field This causes a
Many texts refer to persistence of vision as the phenomenon that allows interlaced video and motion pictures in general to create a seemingly continuous moving image This is largely incorrect (see 2)
Figure 324 Interlaced scan and progressive scan
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disturbing flicker effect, which you can see when someone on TV is wearing stripes A common practice in video production is to filter the video to eliminate vertical detail smaller than two scan lines This improves the stability of the picture but cuts the already poor resolution in half NTSC video frames must be reduced to 200 lines of detail before interline flicker disappears The flicker problem is especially noticeable when computer video signals are converted and displayed on a standard TV The alternating black and white horizontal lines in Macintosh window titles were especially problematic In addition to flicker, line crawl occurs when vertical motion matches the scanning rate Interlaced scanning also causes problems when the picture is paused If objects in the video are moving, they end up in a different position in each field When two fields are shown together in a freeze-frame, the picture appears to shake One solution to this problem is to show only one field, but this cuts the picture resolution in half You may have seen this effect on a VCR: When the tape is paused, much of the detail disappears Since film runs at 24 progressive frames per second, displaying it at NTSC rates of 60 video fields per second requires a process called 2 3 pulldown, where one film frame is shown as two fields, and the following film frame is shown as three fields This pattern results in pairs of 24-per-second film frames converted to 60-per-second TV fields [(2 3) 12 60] (Figure 325) Unfortunately, this causes side effects One is that film frame display times alternate between 2/60 of a second and 3/60 of a second, causing a motion judder artifact a jerkiness that is especially visible when the camera pans slowly Another side effect is that two of every five television frames contain fields derived from two different film frames, which does not cause problems during normal playback but can cause problems when pausing or playing in slow motion A minor problem is that NTSC video
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