General Instructions for Using Digital Multimeters in VS .NET

Drawer PDF-417 2d barcode in VS .NET General Instructions for Using Digital Multimeters

General Instructions for Using Digital Multimeters
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Because exact capabilities and features of different DMMs vary, it is important to read the manufacturer s manual supplied with the unit The following procedures apply to DMMs generally
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Measuring Voltage
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Select a voltage measurement range Connect test leads to the V and COM inputs Place the DMM in 29
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parallel with the voltage source and load to measure voltage (Figure 2-2) Never place the meter in series with the circuit when measuring voltage
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Measuring Current
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Select a current measurement range Connect test leads to the A and COM inputs Place the DMM in series with the voltage source and load to measure current Never place the meter across (in parallel with) the circuit when measuring amperes The current in solid-state circuits such as printed circuit boards is measured in milliamperes (mA) or microamperes ( A) (Figure 2-3)
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Measuring Resistance
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Select resistance test ( ) Plug the red test lead into the voltage (V) input and the black lead into the common (COM) input Place the probe tips across the suspected resistor or leaky component A good resistor should read within plus or minus 10 percent of its rating
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2-2 Measuring voltage
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2-3 Measuring current
Thus, a sound 330- resistor would register between 300 and 360 (suspect a burned resistor if the reading is less than 300 ) It may be necessary to isolate the resistor or other component from the circuit to get an accurate reading (Figure 2-4)
Testing Continuity
Select resistance test ( ) Connect test leads to the V and COM inputs Some DMMs sound a constant tone or noise when making continuity and diode tests A constant tone indicates proper continuity No tone (or a broken, stop-start sound) indicates an open circuit, intermittent faults, or loose connections (Figure 2-5) 31
2-4 Measuring resistance
Measuring Capacitance
Select capacitance measurement ( ) Connect test leads to the V and COM inputs Capacitors should be isolated from the circuit to provide accurate DMM measurements (Figure 2-6) Discharge large filter capacitors before attempting to measure them
Measuring Frequency
Select frequency measurement (Hz) Connect test leads to the V and COM inputs As with other DMM measurements, start at the highest band and switch down to the correct frequency range 32
2-5 Testing for continuity
Testing Diodes
Select diode test ( ) Connect test leads to the V and COM inputs Some DMMs have an audible tone for the 33
2-6 Measuring capacitance
diode test Touch the red probe to the anode and the black test probe to the cathode terminal of the diode The cathode may be marked with a black or white line at one end of the diode (Figure 2-7) A normal silicon diode reading will indicate only an overlimit measurement (OL or 1) if the test leads are reversed
Test leads OK Typical reading +
Leads reversed +
2-7 Testing diodes
Digital Multimeter Safety Features
Hand-held test meters should never be connected to any electrical equipment or system operating at a voltage that exceeds the meter s rating While this is an important safety precaution when using any meter, it is even more important with DMMs Digital meters are more sensitive than older analog models to transient overvoltages caused by nearby lightning strikes, utility switching, motor starting, and capacitor switching High-voltage transients can damage the electronic circuitry inside DMMs, and in severe cases cause meters to explode DMMs have internal fuses that function to protect the test instrument (and the person using it) from harm when taking readings on systems of higher voltage or current rating than the DMM However, it is still extremely important never to try to take a reading on a system whose voltage or current is higher than the rating of the DMM itself Underwriters Laboratories Inc has established safety ratings for DMMs UL standard 3111-1 defines four energy-rating categories for test and measurement equipment, with CAT IV offering the highest level of protection CAT IV covers utility connections and all outdoor conductors (because of lightning hazards) Examples include service entrance equipment, watt-hour meters, and switchboards/switchgears CAT III covers power distribution equipment within buildings and similar structures This includes panelboards, feeders, busways, motors, and lighting 36
CAT II covers single-phase, receptacle-connected loads located more than 10 m from a CAT III power source or more than 20 m from a CAT IV source CAT I covers electronic and low-energy equipment DMMs are certified to these four categories by UL and other independent testing laboratories The certification level is marked directly on the DMMs, and often included in advertising for them Higher-rated meters can safely be used for lower-level measurement functions
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