free barcode generator asp.net c# METAL-HALIDE (MH) LAMPS in Software

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METAL-HALIDE (MH) LAMPS
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Metal-halide (MH) lamps produce light by radiation from an excited mixture of mercury vapor in their arc tubes and the products of the dissociation of halides The construction
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Figure 8-9 Mercury-vapor (MV) lamp construction
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LIGHTING, LAMPS, AND LUMINAIRES
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Figure 8-10 Metal-halide (MH) lamp construction
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of an MH lamp, which is similar to that of a mercury-vapor lamp, is shown in Fig 8-10 In addition to an argon gas fill, the quartz arc tube contains halide (iodide) additives to increase the lamp s luminous efficiency and provide a more pleasing color balance than can be obtained from mercury vapor in an argon gas fill Common additives are halides of sodium, thallium, and indium MH lamps have correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2300 to 5400 K and color rendering indexes (CRIs) of 60 to 93 These CRIs are better than those of other HID lamps because the different additives produce more visible wavelengths, resulting in a more complete spectrum Efficacies of MH lamps are 75 to 125 lm/W Phosphor coating is not needed on MH lamp glass envelopes because their emitted light color is comparable to fluorescent cool white Uncorrected MH light enhances yellow, green, and blue surfaces but dulls red surfaces However, phosphor coating can add orange-red light to improve complexion tone MH lamps emit less UV radiation than MV lamps, are 50 to 75 percent more efficient than fluorescent lamps, and have wattage ratings from 40 to 1000 W
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HIGH-PRESSURE SODIUM (HPS) LAMPS
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High-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps produce light by the excitation of sodium vapor under high pressure The construction of an HPS lamp is shown in Fig 8-11 It is constructed and operates in a way similar to mercury-vapor and metal-halide lamps The internal arc tube is made from translucent ceramic polycrystalline alumina (aluminum oxide) rather than glass The arc tube contains a small amounts of metallic sodium and
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CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL LAMPS
Figure 8-11 High-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp construction
mercury sealed with a xenon gas fill The arc tubes cannot be made from glass or quartz because those materials lose their strength at the high operating temperatures of HPS lamps (about 1300 C), and they would be attacked chemically by the sodium (Some HPS lamps use a neon argon mix in place of xenon) The correlated color temperatures and efficacies of HPS lamps depend on their color rendering index values Standard lamps with CRIs of 22 have CCTs of about 2000 K, and those with nonstandard CRIs of 60 to 80 have CCTs from 2200 to 2700 K Standard lamps have efficacies up to 150 lm/W, but for those with high CRI values, they are as low as 25 lm/W HPS lamps produce an orange-white light that appears yellowish in tone on neutral surfaces This light enhances yellow, green, and orange surfaces while dulling red and blue surfaces It also imparts a yellowish tone to complexions HPS lamps, the most efficient of the HID lamps, are about twice as efficient as fluorescent lamps They have wattage ratings from 35 to 1000 W On the other hand, low-pressure sodium (LPS) lamps have wattage ratings of only 18 to 180 W
Characteristics of Typical Lamps
Table 8-1 lists the leading characteristics of a wide selection of typical lamps, including incandescent, PAR, R, and ER, tungsten-halogen, fluorescent, mercury, metalhalide, and high-pressure sodium
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TABLE 8-1
CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL LAMPS STANDARD INCANDESCENT LAMPS
BULB DESCRIPTION
WATTS
LAMP LIFE (hr)
COLOR TEMP (K)
INITIAL LUMENS
A-19 A-19 (clear) A-19 A-19 A-19 A-19 A-21 A-21 (3-way)
40 60 60 75 100 100 100 30 70 100
1000 870 1000 750 750 1125 750 2500 1500 1500 750 2500 750 1500 1200 1200 750 2500 750 2500 1000
PAR, R, AND ER LAMPS
490 870 2790 2840 2900 865 1180 1740 1600 2880 1690 305 995 1300 2960 2880 2350 2900 2660 580 1640 2220 2980 3910 3400 3010 6360 5200 3050 10,600
A-21 A-23 PS-25 PS-25 (3-way)
150 150 150 50 100 150
A-23 A-23 PS-25 PS-30 PS-35
200 200 300 300 500
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