.net barcode sdk Present Value Factors in Software

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It is convenient to calculate present values for each $100 of expected future cash flows This is called a present value factor 1 (PVF), and it equals We can do this by splitting up (1 r)n
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CHAPTER 5 Discounting to Present Value
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the right-hand side of our Present Value equation into two factors Thus, the equation below states that the present value equals the future value times the present value factor PV FV 1 (1 r)n
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The present value factors for the first 30 years of cash flows for a variety of different discount rates can be seen in Table 52 Column B is a 5 percent discount rate (again, this is the rate of return), which is a fairly typical rate of return for a 30-year US Treasury bond The US Treasury is the largest borrower in the world, and it always repays In finance, the Treasury rates are known as the risk-free rate of interest, because there is no risk of default on the loan The 8 percent rate in column C is a fairly typical interest rate on corporate bonds The remaining discount rates, 12 to 30 percent in columns D through M, are equity rates of return for ownership of a business Business owners have more risk than lenders, since lenders are paid before shareholders are entitled to receive dividends We will cover this in more detail later in the chapter, but for the meantime, 12 to 16 percent are typical rates of return for large publicly traded stocks The 18 to 20 percent rates of return are typical for small, publicly traded stocks; 22 to 26 percent are typical for private business; and 30 percent is fairly typical for valuing a startup business10 As I statistically demonstrated in my first book,11 this is a logical progression; on average, the smaller the business, the more volatile its returns In mathematical finance, risk is defined as the volatility of returns12 Since investors like predictability, they will prefer bonds to stocks, large stocks to small
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These are long-term stock market returns Returns in any year or any decade, for that matter, can vary considerably from these returns There is reasonable professional opinion that one should use somewhat lower discount rates than these 11 Jay B Abrams Quantitative Business Valuation: A Mathematical Approach for Today s Professionals New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, 4 12 This is measured by the variance or the standard deviation of returns In statistical parlance, volatility usually means the latter; however, I have seen it used both ways, and it is best to double-check the specific meaning the user has in mind if the difference is important
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TABLE
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Present Value Factors (the Present Value of $1)
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Discount Rate 14% 088 077 067 059 052 046 040 035 031 027 024 021 018 016 014 012 011 009 008 007 007 006 005 008 009 011 008 007 006 005 004 004 013 010 015 012 017 014 011 009 008 006 005 005 004 003 003 020 016 013 023 019 016 026 023 019 017 014 011 009 008 006 005 004 003 003 002 002 031 027 023 020 035 031 028 025 041 037 033 030 048 044 040 037 034 028 022 018 014 012 009 008 006 005 004 003 003 002 002 001 055 052 048 045 042 064 061 058 055 052 074 072 069 067 065 063 050 040 031 025 020 016 012 010 008 006 005 004 003 002 002 002 001 001 086 085 083 082 081 079 16% 18% 20% 22% 24% 26% 28% 078 061 048 037 029 023 018 014 011 008 007 005 004 003 002 002 002 001 001 001 30% 077 059 046 035 027 021 016 012 009 007 006 004 003 003 002 002 001 001 001 001
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