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Figure 3-4
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A simple Objective-C message
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Using self in a Message
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The term self refers to an object when sending a message, and it is also the receiver For instance, you might make a mental note to yourself to pick up milk on the way home from work (Listing 3-8) Listing 3-8 A method using the self keyword
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- (void) goHome { [self pickupMilk]; } - (Milk*) pickupMilk { }
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Both methods are in the same object, and so the goHome method sends the message pickupMilk to itself, or self
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Nested Arguments
Like Java, you can nest Objective-C messages For instance, using Java, you might write the following:
objMyObjectgetFoo(objMyFooIdentifiergetID());
In Objective-C, you would write the same statement as follows:
[objMyObject getFoo: [objMyFooIdentifier getID]];
Using Java, you might nest an object s constructor in another method
objTestertestFubar(new Fubar(33));
In Objective-C, you can also nest object constructors in other methods
[objTester testFubar[[Fubar alloc] initWithInteger : 33]]];
In this method, a new Fubar instance is first allocated and then initialized with 33, and the resulting object reference is sent as an argument to the testFubar message
Class and Instance Methods
As discussed earlier, you declare methods in a class s interface and define methods in a class s implementation Just like C, a method declaration consists solely of the method s signature, while the definition is the method s actual implementation In both files, there are two method types: instance and class methods Instance methods begin with a minus sign, while class
3:
Just Enough Objective-C Part One
methods begin with a plus sign A class method is similar to a Java static method, meaning you don t need to create a class instance to use the method For instance, the following is an instance method
- (void) sayHello: (NSString*) name
Using the method requires creating a class instance first Although not required, you should also initialize the class Remember, all classes extend NSObject, which has an init method, so every Objective-C class is guaranteed to implement init
Simple *objSimple = [[Simple alloc] init]; [objSimple sayHello:@"James"];
Now consider class methods Class methods begin with a plus sign
+ (id) sayGoodBye;
A class method doesn t require creating a class instance before using the method For instance, when first allocating space for an object instance, you call a class s alloc method If the class doesn t implement the alloc method, the runtime traverses up the class s inheritance hierarchy until it finds an alloc method or it reaches NSObject s alloc method and calls it
Simple *mySimple = [Simple alloc]; [mySimple init];
This alloc method is a class method example You don t instantiate a class instance before calling alloc; rather, you call alloc directly using the class You create and use class methods just like Java static methods And like Java static methods, you have the same restrictions You can t reference that class s instance variables from a static method, as the instance variables haven t been initialized You also can t refer to other instance methods from the same class as the class method Remember, like a Java static method, you are using an uninitialized class, not an initialized object If your class method relies upon a class being initialized, runtime errors will result
Try This
Adding sayGoodBye as a Class Method to Simple
1 Open the last example s project in Xcode Open Simpleh and add the sayGoodBye method
declaration to it (Listing 3-9) Be certain to use a + and not a in the method s signature
2 Add the method s definition to Simplem (Listing 3-10) 3 Have mainm call the sayGoodBye method as in Listing 3-11 4 Build and run the application, and Goodbye is written to the debugger console
(Listing 3-12)
(continued)
iPhone SDK Programming: A Beginner s Guide
Listing 3-9
Simpleh modified to include sayGoodBye declaration
#import <Foundation/Foundationh> @interface Simple : NSObject { } + (void) sayGoodBye; -(void) sayHello: (NSString *) name; @end
Listing 3-10
Simplem modified to include sayGoodBye definition
#import "Simpleh" @implementation Simple + (void) sayGoodBye { NSLog(@"Goodbye"); } - (void) sayHello: (NSString *) name { NSMutableString *message = [[NSMutableString alloc] initWithString:@"Hello there"]; [message appendString:name]; NSLog(message); [message release]; } @end
Listing 3-11
The mainh file modified to call sayGoodBye
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Simple * mySimple = [[Simple alloc] init]; [mySimple sayHello:@"James"]; [mySimple release]; [Simple sayGoodBye]; int retVal = UIApplicationMain(argc, argv, nil, nil); [pool release]; return retVal; }
Listing 3-12
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