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Because there is little need to do so, and it is nearly impossible to achieve this spherical radiation pattern, most antennas are based on a simple dipole an antenna made of two equal elements, one pointed up and the other pointed down The signal radiation pattern from a dipole is nearly spherical, with slight dimples of little or no radiation directly above and below the tips of the elements envisioned as two circles of signal radiation emanating from the center of the dipole radiator Dipoles may also be set horizontally, as in the case of long-wire antennas A dipole is the typical real-world reference antenna from which measurements and antenna gain, expressed as dBd or decibels referenced to a dipole (see Figure 42)
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Figure 42 A practical, realistic vertical dipole has a donut-shaped radiation pattern
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Dipoles are fine in many applications, but more often, vertical antennas have an underlying counterpoise or ground-plane surface, causing the signal to radiate in a semicircular pattern above the ground or horizon plane beneath it This design is more practical for use on cars and other objects where mounting and supplying signal from the bottom, rather than the center, is more practical (see Figure 43) Antenna purists will argue adamantly about the differences in antenna performance and the theoretical isotropic versus the realistic dipole reference points My view is to make sure that whatever antenna performance numbers you use employ the same reference point dBi or dBd or correct the difference to a reference value of your preference and work from that In reality, we can easily compare a real-world dipole to other antennas, so using dBd as a realworld reference makes more sense than shifting numbers around to dBi because an antenna that performs two, three, five, or ten times
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Figure 43 A vertical groundplane antenna also has a donut-shaped radiation pattern, though somewhat flattened or having less signal immediately below the plane than above and across it
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better than the lowly dipole is something we can realize No one will ever know how much better or worse something real performs against something that does not and cannot exist in real life (like the isotropic antenna) and the difference is generally only a single decibel or so not worth arguing about in practical cases where signal levels typically vary by 10 to 30 dB With a vertical antenna, there is a single main radiating element offset by a comparably sized or larger surface area or ground-plane beneath it This acts as a signal counterpoise or return point for the energy flowing from the radiating element in effect, a modified dipole Omnidirectional antennas are typically oriented vertically, perpendicular to the Earth, so the signal they radiate spans out and around across the horizon If the antenna were oriented horizontally, parallel to the Earth, much of the available signal would be lost, radiating into the Earth and up into the atmosphere We want our wireless signals more earthbound, but not wasted into the ground either A basic vertically polarized omnidirectional antenna, as shown in Figure 43, has a radiating element equal to 1/4 of the wavelength of the signal frequency of interest As antenna theory and measured reality goes, the maximum amplitude (voltage), current, and, as a result, power of an alternating wave signal is at 90 (1/4 wavelength) and 270 (3/4 wavelength) degrees from the starting zero-amplitude point of the waveform A 3/4 wavelength would be just as good, if not a little better, because there would be two maximum signal points in the wave However, 1/4 wavelength is an accepted practical reference point A 1/4 wavelength is equal to 234 / operating frequency in megahertz (MHz) 1/4 wavelength in feet, or 2808 / operating frequency in megahertz (MHz) 1/4 wavelength in inches At the frequencies
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