how to make barcode in vb.net 2010 Logical versus specific physical translations for common PC devices in Software

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The logical assignment of parallel I/O (LPT) ports to specific hardware addresses is not as critical for most applications as is the assignment of serial I/O (COM) ports Most software that uses the COM ports work directly with the hardware, bypassing the features built into the system BIOS (because doing so is much faster than using the BIOS features) Because most communications applications access the hardware directly, but make their own assumptions about logical names and physical addresses, the physical and logical device matching, in the order shown in Table 121, is expected and critical Communications applications also require specific, matching IRQ assignments to function properly Consider Table 121, a listing of the most common physical and logical devices encountered in a PC system, to be a foundation set of rules for your system configuration
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TABLE 121 Logical versus specific physical translations for common PC devices
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Logical Address COM 1 COM 2 COM 3 COM 4 LPT 1 LPT 1 LPT 2 LPT 2 LPT 3
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Physical Address 3F8-3FFh 2F8-2FFh 3E8-3EFh 2E8-2EFh 3BC-3BFh 378-37Fh 378-37Fh 278-27Fh 278-27Fh IRQ IRQ 4 IRQ 3 IRQ 4 IRQ 3 IRQ 7 IRQ 7 IRQ 5 IRQ 5 IRQ 5 Device Name 1st Serial I/O Port 2nd Serial I/O Port 3rd Serial I/O Port 4th Serial I/O Port 1st Parallel I/O Port (on monochrome systems) 1st Parallel I/O Port (on color systems) 2nd Parallel I/O Port if LPT1: is at 3BCh The accepted LPT2 device on color systems 3rd Parallel I/O Port
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(Note: h indicates a hexadecimal number)
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The issue of logical versus physical devices in a PC is not always an easy one to understand, much less explain Yet this issue is one of the most significant rule-creating and binding aspects of a PC system, and the root of many conflicts The easiest way to deal with this issue is to simply follow the original rules that IBM defined for all of
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the devices in your system In fact, that is what is advocated throughout this book knowing the configuration rules and complying with them Logical assignments occur during the Power-On Self-Test (POST) that runs when you boot up your system The system BIOS performs a series of equipment checks, looking for specific devices at specific physical addresses in a specific order As these devices are found, they are assigned sequential, logical port numbers BIOS uses this information to refer to the I/O ports for any application that happens to rely on the system BIOS to provide access to these ports Thus, when you are working directly with DOS or its applications, such as PRINT, and you send a file to be printed to LPT1:, DOS passes some control over the printing to the system BIOS, and the BIOS sends the file to the physical device associated with the name of LPT1: The process works similarly in Windows 31-Me and changes dramatically with Windows NT, 2000, and XP, avoiding BIOS assignments altogether and replacing them with similar functions within the operating system Where problems originate is in the fact that POST bases its naming strictly on a first-come, first-served basis Although the logical and physical addresses are designed to be matched as shown in the table, and those addresses are what your system and devices will be looking for during operation, the actual order in which these logical devices are assigned may differ The apparent confusion and variable assignments for LPT ports (as noted in Table 121) begins with IBM providing a parallel port at 3BCh using IRQ7 on monochrome display video adapters Any parallel port added to a system had to be at either 378h or 278h When IBM introduced color systems (CGA, EGA, and PGA), it did not provide a parallel port on the card Any parallel port provided with or added to these systems was configured for address 378h Quite possibly, this is because you could have both a monochrome display adapter and a color display adapter in the same system, working at the same time Subsequently, for a color system with an add-in parallel port at 378h, a second port was provided for at 278h Always keep in mind that the numeric designation indicates a logical ordering of devices A good way to remember this is that, in order to have a No 2 or a second of something, you must have a No 1 or a first of something You simply cannot reserve, save, or leave gaps in the logical numbering of the devices, as some people have wanted to do
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