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36 Review controls for preventing direct root logins
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Because several people usually know the root password, if they are allowed to log in directly as the root account, no accountability exists for actions performed by that account If inappropriate actions are performed by the root account, there will be no way to trace those actions back to a specific user It is preferable to force people to log in as themselves first and then use su or sudo to access the root account
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Review the wtmp log (by performing the more command on /usr/adm/wtmp, /var/ adm/wtmp, or /etc/wtmp depending on the type of system) to verify that there are no direct root logins The last command can be used to view the contents of this file on most systems Exceptions would be direct logins from the console, which may be needed for emergencies Review settings for preventing direct root logins via telnet and rlogin The file /etc/default/login can be used to disable direct root logins on Solaris machines If this file is available, the CONSOLE= parameter should be set to the pathname of a nonexistent device If the administrator wants to place the pathname of the actual console device (the terminal directly linked to the Unix machine) into this parameter, the console should be in a secure location The contents of this file can be viewed by executing the more /etc/default/login command On Linux and HP systems, the /etc/securetty file can be used to prevent direct logins as root The contents of the file should contain all terminals that are allowed direct root login The file should exist but be empty Sometimes the system administrator will want to allow direct root login from the console terminal This is acceptable, as long as the console is in a secure location The contents of this file can be viewed by executing more /etc/securetty
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Review settings for preventing direct root logins via SSH The /etc/sshd_config or /etc/openssh/sshd_config file is used for this purpose Review the contents of this file using the more command Look for the PermitRootLogin parameter If this parameter is set to a value of no, root logins are not permitted If the parameter is not there or is set to a value of yes, root logins are permitted Review settings for preventing direct root logins via FTP This can be done by placing a root entry in the /etc/ftpusers file Review the contents of this file using the more command
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37 Review the su and sudo command logs to ensure that when these commands are used, they are logged with the date, time, and user who typed the command
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The su command is a tool used frequently by attackers to try to break into a user s account The sudo command allows authorized users to perform specific commands as if they were root The use of both commands should be logged to ensure accountability and to aid in investigations
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Attempt to perform a more command on the su log However, the log may be protected, so you may not be able to do this If this is the case, have the system administrator provide you with a copy of the log and perform the command on it For some systems, the su log will be at /usr/adm/sulog, /var/adm/sulog, or /var/log/authlog For other systems, the /etc/default/su file will determine where the su log will be kept Ensure that this file exists and is capturing information on su usage (such as who performed the command, to what account they switched, the date and time of the command, and indications as to whether or not the command succeeded) Question any instance of one user su-ing to another user s account There should be little to no reason for one user to attempt to su to another user s account on the system Most su commands should be issued from an administrator s account to root or from a user account to an application ID View the sudo log to ensure that it is capturing information on sudo usage (such as who performed the command, what command was performed, and the date and time of the command) By default, the sudo logs are written to the syslog, but this can be changed in /etc/sudoers, so check for the location on your system (using the more command)
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