barcode printing in vb.net 9: Auditing Databases in Software

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9: Auditing Databases
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8 Check for default usernames and passwords
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The first basic item to audit for is default usernames and passwords This continues to be an issue for databases At least five database worms have been based on propagating through databases using default usernames and passwords Table 9-1 classifies these default usernames and passwords into a few categories Literally thousands of these default passwords can be found on various security websites PART II
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Verify that all default usernames and passwords have been removed or locked, or that the passwords have been changed Free and commercial utilities and tools are available to verify this
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9 Check for easily guessed passwords
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Users often choose passwords that can be easily guessed by automated programs or clever hackers The most common passwords used to be password and secret People are more clever these days and select more secure passwords, but it is still important to ensure that passwords cannot be found in a dictionary or easily guessed
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Run a password strength test on password hashes to determine whether any passwords are easily guessed If you detect passwords that are found in a dictionary or can be guessed, talk with the DBA about user awareness practices and about implementing password strength-checking practices Refer to step 10 for system configuration settings that can help strengthen passwords
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Default database password
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Created in a standard database install Can depend on the installed components of the database Most of the latest versions of databases have eliminated default database passwords, but default passwords continue to be a serious concern in older versions of database software Many samples, examples, and demonstrations of new or existing features are shown in SQL scripts that include creation of a test or sample account When you install third-party products on top of a database, the products often install and run using a default username and password to access the database These are known to hackers and serve as a common access route When a new account is created, the password is often set to an initial value and then reset on first use Problems arise when an account is created but never accessed Ensure that passwords set on new accounts are random, strong passwords
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Sample or example passwords
Default application password
User-defined default password
Table 9-1 Default Passwords
IT Auditing: Using Controls to Protect Information Assets, Second Edition
10 Check that password management capabilities are enabled
Many of the database platforms provide support for rich password management features Oracle leads this area by including capabilities for the following features: Password strength validation functions Password expiration Password reuse limits Password expiration grace time Password lockout Password lockout reset If you do not configure these settings, they will not provide any additional security By default, these features are not enabled
Select the configuration values from the database Ensure that each password management feature is enabled and configured for an appropriate value for the environment and in accordance with your company s policies You will need to review the documentation for the database platform to determine the exact password management features available and the commands required to view them
Review Database Privileges
Database privileges are slightly different from operating system permissions Privileges are managed using GRANT and REVOKE statements For instance, the following SQL statement gives USER1 the permission to SELECT from the SALARY table:
GRANT SELECT ON SALARY TO USER1
The REVOKE statement is used to remove permissions that have been granted:
REVOKE SELECT ON SALARY FROM USER1
The GRANT statement can be used selectively to give permissions, such as SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, or EXECUTE This allows you to grant access to read the data in the table but limit the ability to modify the table GRANT and REVOKE also can be used more selectively on a column-by-column basis
11 Verify that database permissions are granted or revoked appropriately for the required level of authorization
If database permissions are not restricted properly, inappropriate access to critical data may occur Database permissions also should be used to restrict people from using subsystems in the database that may be used to circumvent security Security best practices dictate that permissions should be granted on a need-only basis If permission is not specifically needed by an account, it should not be granted
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