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Internal Controls
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Before we embark on a discussion of the auditing process, you need to understand one of the most basic concepts of auditing: internal controls The concept of internal controls is absolutely fundamental to the auditing profession In 1, you learned that the real mission of the internal audit department is to help improve the state of internal controls at the company But what are internal controls If you don t know the answer to this question, you ll find it difficult to accomplish the department s mission We won t spend too much time on this, for fear of turning this book into the aforementioned Auditing 101 course, but the topic does warrant a few paragraphs
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IT Auditing: Using Controls to Protect Information Assets, Second Edition
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Internal controls, stated in the simplest terms, are mechanisms that ensure proper functioning of processes within the company Every system and process within a company exists for some specific business purpose The auditor must look for the existence of risks to those purposes and then ensure that internal controls are in place to mitigate those risks
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Types of Internal Controls
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Controls can be preventive, detective, or reactive, and they can have administrative, technical, and physical implementations Examples of administrative implementations include items such as policies and processes Technical implementations are the tools and software that logically enforce controls (such as passwords) Physical implementations include controls such as security personnel and locked doors (Figure 2-1)
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Preventive Controls
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Preventive controls stop a bad event from happening For example, requiring a user ID and password for access to a system is a preventive control It prevents (theoretically) unauthorized people from accessing the system From a theoretical standpoint, preventive controls are always preferred, for obvious reasons However, when you re performing audits, remember that preventive controls are not always the most cost-effective solution, and another type of control may make more sense from a cost/benefit standpoint
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Detective controls record a bad event after it has happened For example, logging all activities performed on a system will allow you to review the logs to look for inappropriate activities after the event
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Reactive Controls (aka Corrective Controls)
Reactive controls fall between preventive and detective controls They do not prevent a bad event from occurring, but they provide a systematic way to detect when those bad events have happened and correct the situation, which is why they are sometimes called corrective controls For example, you might have a central antivirus system that detects
Figure 2-1 Types of internal controls and their implementation
2: The Audit Process
whether each user s PC has the latest signature files installed Ideally, you could disallow network access to any machine that is not in compliance However, this might not be practical from a business standpoint Therefore, an alternative might be to log PCs that are not in compliance and perform some regimented follow-up activities to get the PC in compliance or remove its ability to access the network PART I
Internal Control Examples
Let s say that you re reviewing your company s accounts receivable system That system exists for the purpose of ensuring that you re tracking who owes your company money so that you can nag the deadbeats who don t pay you, and so that you properly record payments from those who do The financial auditors will worry about risks within the accounts receivable process itself, but the IT auditors need to think about the risks to the system accomplishing its business purpose Following are a few rudimentary examples that are intended to illustrate the concept of internal controls The auditor must understand the business purpose of what he or she is auditing, think through the risks to that purpose being accomplished, and then identify any existing internal controls that mitigate those risks The chapters in Part II of this book provide detailed guidance on what to look for when evaluating internal controls with regard to various topic areas
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