print barcode label using vb.net 2: The Audit Process in Software

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2: The Audit Process
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require this sort of system, it is best to avoid it if possible Rating systems lead to lots of wasted time and energy spent on debating with the customers what the exact rating should be Instead of spending energy on debating whether the report should be a 5 or a 6, spend that time reaching agreement on the need to do something and on developing an action plan The end goal is to improve the controls in the environment Debating over a rating does not contribute to this goal Following is a simplified example of an audit report, using the elements described in the preceding section AUDIT SCOPE During this audit, we reviewed the internal controls within the corporate accounts receivable (AR) system This included a review of controls within the application and its related database and operating system Physical security of the AR system server was not included in the scope of the review because those controls were tested during a recent audit of the data center EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Strong controls were in place over account administration, but a number of control concerns were found related to software change controls The most significant of these issues is the fact that developers have direct access to production code This means that these programmers can alter production code functionality without going through proper testing and approval The development team has developed an action plan for addressing this concern, which will result in their access being removed from the production environment Further details are found in the Issues section below AUDIT ISSUES 1 Developers have direct access to update production code No technical or procedural controls are in place to prevent application support personnel from making unauthorized changes to the system Risk: Without proper software change controls, changes could be made to the application, either unintentionally or maliciously, that have not been approved and/or that have not been tested properly These code changes could result in inaccurate system processing, the ability of an employee to execute fraudulent transactions, or system unavailability Solution: The AR system team will implement a baseline tool for protecting the production code The ability to check new code into this tool will be limited to the group s manager and a backup, neither of whom has responsibility for performing code changes Once this tool is implemented, the team will document procedures requiring approval and testing prior to submitting new production code for check-in Responsible: Clark Kent Completion Date: xx/xx/xx PART I
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IT Auditing: Using Controls to Protect Information Assets, Second Edition
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2 The default umask on the server is set to 000 Risk: This means that, by default, when a new file is created, its file permissions are set so that anyone with access to the server will be able to read and write to the file Since this server contains critical financial data files, this could result in inappropriate access and/or unauthorized changes to the data Solution: Nolan Ryan from the Unix infrastructure team will reset the default umask to 027 on the affected servers in the environment Additionally, the Unix baseline documentation will be updated to include checking the default umask value prior to placing new systems into production Responsible: Nolan Ryan Completion Date: xx/xx/xx
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Additional Elements of an Audit Report
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In addition to the three basic sections just mentioned, you might consider adding a few other elements to your reports Key Controls In addition to the problems you found, you undoubtedly noticed some good things that were already being done Some important controls were already in place that you relied on during your assessment If these controls were not in place or were changed, it would change your overall assessment of the environment Isn t it as important for your customers to know what they re doing right as it is for them to know what they need to improve If you don t tell them that you considered a particular control to be important, they could make a decision to stop performing that control For example, if you relied on the fact that they disabled all unnecessary network services on their servers and that they regularly run Tripwire to detect changes in the environment, you should state as much in the audit report In this way, they ll know that they should not make changes to those controls Closed Items If your audit customers resolve issues during the course of the audit, give them credit for it List the issues that have already been resolved in a separate section This keeps closed items from clogging up the Issues section, gives your customers credit for being proactive, and also ensures that the audit report reflects a complete picture of the problems in place at the time of the review Minor Issues Sometimes you find minor issues during the project that do not represent a great risk You have no interest in tracking their resolution because whether the customers address them or not is not important Yet you would like to make the customers aware of your observations so that they can take action if they want Minor issues can be listed in their own section, where you make it clear that they are being communicated purely for informational purposes and that you won t be requiring action plans or tracking resolution
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