zebra barcode printer in vb.net 6: Auditing Windows Operating Systems in Software

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6: Auditing Windows Operating Systems
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11 Ensure that all users are created at the domain level and clearly annotated in the active directory Each user should trace to a specific employee or team
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Most user accounts should be administered centrally by a domain controller, with the possible exception of accounts created on isolated systems that are not a member of a domain (such as some DMZs) This increases network security because account provisioning and deprovisioning can be controlled
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PART II
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You can view the accounts by opening compmgmtmsc from the command line or with a tool such as DumpSec using the following syntax:
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DumpSecexe /rpt=users /saveas=fixed /outfile=userstxt
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NOTE Download DumpSec from wwwsomarsoftcom The same executable that launches the GUI is used from the command lineYou can include DumpSec in a script by including the binary with your script when you run the script Learn about the different command-line options by going to the help file under Help | Contents and selecting Command-Line options Discuss your findings with the administrator, and pay close attention to accounts that should exist outside the domain The only accounts that should exist outside the domain are the built-in guest and administrator accounts unless required by an application
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12 Review and evaluate the use of groups, and determine the restrictiveness of their use
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Groups can greatly simplify the provisioning and deprovisioning process for adding or removing user access to systems as users join and leave a team However, old members sometimes hang around inside a group when they leave a team
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Review the contents of the groups on the system for appropriate membership while you re looking through the accounts using the method in the preceding step Remember that in an Active Directory environment, groups can be nested, and you need to check the membership of the nested groups In general, this is a good time to investigate the use of shared accounts Such accounts present risk in that you lose accountability for actions taken on the system However, in some situations, this is unavoidable, such as with certain software on a manufacturing floor Organizations dealing with personally identifiable information (PII), Payment Card Industry (PCI), or Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) should closely examine their use of shared accounts
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IT Auditing: Using Controls to Protect Information Assets, Second Edition
Additionally, ensure that the IT security team, investigations team, and appropriate support personnel have administrative access to the server This may not pertain to all organizations, and there may be some exceptions These users should be placed into a group and not added as individual users to the server NOTE Although mentioned earlier, it bears repeating that it s common to have exception requests that document exceptions to policy This is fine as long as the requests are documented with the specific accepted risks and the appropriate management sign-off on the request Many large organizations require the highest levels of management to sign-off on such requests to discourage exceptions to policy
13 Review and evaluate the strength of system passwords
If passwords on the system are easy to guess, it is more likely that an attacker will be able to break into that account, obtaining unauthorized access to the system and its resources A key mitigating control for many organizations is the use of two-factor authentication
All accounts should have passwords The methods used to test these controls depend on the password-provisioning process and controls enabled on the servers and Active Directory At a minimum, you should review system settings that provide password controls such as those mentioned in the next step You can retrieve and test Windows password hashes in several ways You should, however, be careful and play it safe Password dump, or pwdump, is one commonly used tool to dump password hashes from systems (see download information in the accompanying note) Different versions work using different methods The tool works well, but even the latest version may have problems on your server, crashing your system This has happened to highly customized servers Test everything in a nonproduction environment first NOTE You can download pwdump from http://openwallcom/passwords
Perhaps the easiest way to get your software asset management (SAM) and SYSTEM files is to copy them from the C:\WINDOWS\repair directory Select the files with the CTRL key pressed, and then CTRL-drag them to another folder or USB drive
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