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Figure 11 12. No need to include Converter.m
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CHAPTER 11: Unit Testing in Xcode
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Your test classes now depend on the main executable classes, so your main executable will build first, then the test target will build, and then finally the tests will run. As I mentioned earlier, I see little benefit in running dependent unit tests, but at least you know that you have an option. The document Xcode Unit Testing in the Developer Documentation has a lot more detail on the pros and cons of dependent versus independent testing. Search for Unit Testing, and it should be the first hit.
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So that s a brief look at unit testing. It s only fair to mention that not all developers approve of unit testing, and I m definitely not advocating full-on Test-Driven Development. But any testing is better than no testing or haphazard testing. I use unit tests in my code because I think it helps me to design better code, and it helps me to nail down bugs. It takes a little organization to put meaningful tests in place, but once there they run themselves whenever you use Build and Run, so beyond that initial investment they are free. Another way of checking the workings of your application is to check its performance. Xcode includes some great tools to help with monitoring performance and resource usage. That s where you re heading in the next chapter.
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Monitoring, Analysis, and Performance Tools
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This chapter takes a look under the covers at some tools that allow you to understand how your application is performing and where you might be able to improve things. You could be lucky, of course. If all of your programs perform well and never crash you may never need the tools here. And, frankly, one of the difficulties in writing this chapter is that it is so easy to write well-behaved software in Xcode that it is quite hard to engineer circumstances in which you will need to use these tools! However, by the end of this chapter, you should have a good understanding of where to look in the event that things go awry.
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Instruments
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Instruments is an analytical tool, and it is clearly the flagship tool in the Xcode toolchest. Use it to monitor your running program and to alert you to issues with, for example, memory leaks, object allocations, and a range of other parameters and problems. In this section, I m going to focus on using Instruments to locate and help you solve memoryleak problems and to analyze file activity.
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Tracking Down a Memory Leak
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As with many other modern programming languages, Objective-C v2.0 offers a service called Garbage Collection. Every time a program instantiates an object, it allocates a block of memory space to hold it. As a program progresses, an object may go out of scope (for example, an object created in a loop is no longer needed when the loop is complete) and, therefore, the block of memory is no longer needed. As a good citizen, your computer program should relinquish that memory so that it is available for other purposes (either within the program or elsewhere on your system). The Garbage Collector looks after this, tidying up blocks of memory allocated by your program when you no longer need them.
CHAPTER 12: Monitoring, Analysis, and Performance Tools
Before Garbage Collection became available, you as a developer were responsible for allocating objects and releasing the memory when your program had finished with it. Even though Garbage Collection is now available, many developers still prefer the discipline of positively managing the allocation and release of memory. Sometimes that discipline slips and a program may allocate but never release its memory. That is called a memory leak.
Create the Application
It may seem like a slightly perverse thing to do, but in this chapter you re going to write a program that leaks memory (spoiler: you will create a set of objects but never release them). Then you are going to use Instruments to monitor and let you know where it is happening. In Xcode, create a new Cocoa application (not Core Data- or Document-based). This application is going to be a simple calculator for numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, so call it Fibonacci Fun. Listing 12 1 shows Fibonacci_FunAppDelegate.h you just need to set up a text field to take the output and to declare the function where you are going to do the calculation (see the lines in bold in Listing 12 1).
Listing 12 1. Fibonacci_FunAppDelegate.h #import <Cocoa/Cocoa.h> @interface Fibonacci_FunAppDelegate : NSObject <NSApplicationDelegate> { NSWindow *window; IBOutlet NSTextField *outputField; } @property (assign) IBOutlet NSWindow *window; - (IBAction)startCalculation:(id)sender; @end
Now for the implementation. You will want the button click to run the calculation in fact, to make it work a bit harder I am going to run the calculation 10 times. Each time the calculation works out the first 90 members of the Fibonacci series of integers: each member of the series is the sum of the two previous members of the series, so it goes 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21 and so on. The numbers get to be pretty big, which is why you need to declare the fibValues array holding the series of numbers to be a long long int. After setting the first two members of the series manually, you go into a loop, setting the nth member of the series to be the sum of the (n 2)th and (n 1)th members. Then you take the current member of the array and append that to a growing, comma-separated string actually, since NSStrings are immutable, you are creating a new NSString with the new contents. Each time around the loop, you are putting a space between the lines and adding a number at the beginning of the next calculation. Then finally you put the outputString into a multiline text field. See Listing 12 2.
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